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Open AccessArticle

Development of an Automatic Polarization Raman LiDAR for Aerosol Monitoring over Complex Terrain

Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Nova Gorica, 5270 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Ocean Remote Sensing Institute, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3186;
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies)
High temporal and spatial resolution profiling of aerosol properties is required to study air pollution sources, aerosol transport, and features of atmospheric structures over complex terrain. A polarization Raman LiDAR with remote operation capability was developed for this purpose and deployed in the Vipava Valley, Slovenia, a location in the Alpine region where high concentrations of aerosols originating from a number of different local and remote sources were found. The system employs two high-power Nd:YAG pulsed lasers at 355 nm and 1064 nm as transmitters and provides the capability to extract the extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficients, depolarization ratio, Ångström exponent, and LiDAR ratio profiles. Automatized remote operation in an indoor environment provides a high duty cycle in all weather conditions. In addition to the detailed description of the device, an assessment of its potential and the retrieval uncertainties of the measured quantities is discussed. System optimization and performance studies include calibration of the depolarization ratio, merging of near-range (analog) and far-range (photon counting) data, determination of overlap functions, and validation of the retrieved observables with radiosonde data. Two cases for assessing LiDAR performance under specific weather conditions (during rain and in the presence of mineral dust) are also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: polarization Raman LiDAR; system calibration; performance; complex terrain polarization Raman LiDAR; system calibration; performance; complex terrain
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Wang, L.; Stanič, S.; Eichinger, W.; Song, X.; Zavrtanik, M. Development of an Automatic Polarization Raman LiDAR for Aerosol Monitoring over Complex Terrain. Sensors 2019, 19, 3186.

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