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Reducing the Effect of Positioning Errors on Kinematic Raw Doppler (RD) Velocity Estimation Using BDS-2 Precise Point Positioning

School of Geomatics, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 3029;
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precise Point Positioning with Multiple GNSS)
PDF [3630 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]


In the traditional raw Doppler (RD) velocity estimation method, the positioning error of the pseudorange-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) single point positioning (SPP) solution affects the accuracy of the velocity estimation through the station-satellite unit cosine vector. To eliminate the effect of positioning errors, this paper proposes a carrier-phase-based second generation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS-2) precise point positioning (PPP) RD velocity estimation method. Compared with the SPP positioning accuracy of tens of meters, the BDS-2 kinematic PPP positioning accuracy is significantly improved to the dm level. In order to verify the reliability and applicability of the developed method, three dedicated tests, the vehicle-borne, ship-borne and air-borne platforms, were conducted. In the vehicle-borne experiment, the GNSS and inertial navigation system (INS)-integrated velocity solution was chosen as the reference. The velocity accuracy of the BDS-2 PPP RD method was better than that of SPP RD by 28.4%, 27.1% and 26.1% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. In the ship-borne and air-borne experiments, the BDS-2 PPP RD velocity accuracy was improved by 17.4%, 21.4%, 17.8%, and 38.1%, 17.6%, 17.5% in the same three directions, respectively, compared with the BDS-2 SPP RD solutions. The reference in these two tests is the real-time kinematic (RTK) Position Derivation (PD)-based velocity. View Full-Text
Keywords: BDS-2; PPP; raw Doppler; velocity estimation BDS-2; PPP; raw Doppler; velocity estimation

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Duan, S.; Sun, W.; Ouyang, C.; Chen, X.; Shi, J. Reducing the Effect of Positioning Errors on Kinematic Raw Doppler (RD) Velocity Estimation Using BDS-2 Precise Point Positioning. Sensors 2019, 19, 3029.

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