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Open AccessArticle

A Dynamic Time Warping Based Algorithm to Evaluate Kinect-Enabled Home-Based Physical Rehabilitation Exercises for Older People

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea
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Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132882
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Gait, Posture, and Health Monitoring)
Older people face difficulty engaging in conventional rehabilitation exercises for improving physical functions over a long time period due to the passive nature of the conventional exercise, inconvenience, and cost. This study aims to develop and validate a dynamic time warping (DTW) based algorithm for assessing Kinect-enabled home-based physical rehabilitation exercises, in order to support auto-coaching in a virtual gaming environment. A DTW-based algorithm was first applied to compute motion similarity between two time series from an individual user and a virtual coach. We chose eight bone vectors of the human skeleton and body orientation as the input features and proposed a simple but innovative method to further convert the DTW distance to a meaningful performance score in terms of the percentage (0–100%), without training data and experience of experts. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was validated through a follow-up experiment with 21 subjects when playing a Tai Chi exergame. Results showed that the algorithm scores had a strong positive linear relationship (r = 0.86) with experts’ ratings and the calibrated algorithm scores were comparable to the gold standard. These findings suggested that the DTW-based algorithm could be effectively used for automatic performance evaluation of an individual when performing home-based rehabilitation exercises. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; physical function; rehabilitation exercise; Kinect; dynamic time warping; automatic coaching; exergame aging; physical function; rehabilitation exercise; Kinect; dynamic time warping; automatic coaching; exergame
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Yu, X.; Xiong, S. A Dynamic Time Warping Based Algorithm to Evaluate Kinect-Enabled Home-Based Physical Rehabilitation Exercises for Older People. Sensors 2019, 19, 2882.

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