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Open AccessArticle

Georeferencing of Laser Scanner-Based Kinematic Multi-Sensor Systems in the Context of Iterated Extended Kalman Filters Using Geometrical Constraints

Geodetic Institute, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Nienburger Str. 1, 30167 Hannover, Germany
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Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102280
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
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Abstract

Georeferencing is an indispensable necessity regarding operating with kinematic multi-sensor systems (MSS) in various indoor and outdoor areas. Information from object space combined with various types of prior information (e.g., geometrical constraints) are beneficial especially in challenging environments where common solutions for pose estimation (e.g., global navigation satellite system or external tracking by a total station) are inapplicable, unreliable or inaccurate. Consequently, an iterated extended Kalman filter is used and a general georeferencing approach by means of recursive state estimation is introduced. This approach is open to several types of observation inputs and can deal with (non)linear systems and measurement models. The capability of using both explicit and implicit formulations of the relation between states and observations, and the consideration of (non)linear equality and inequality state constraints is a special feature. The framework presented is evaluated by an indoor kinematic MSS based on a terrestrial laser scanner. The focus here is on the impact of several different combinations of applied state constraints and the dependencies of two classes of inertial measurement units (IMU). The results presented are based on real measurement data combined with simulated IMU measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: georeferencing; kinematic multi-sensor system; implicit model; iterated extended Kalman filter; inequality state constraints; probability density function truncation georeferencing; kinematic multi-sensor system; implicit model; iterated extended Kalman filter; inequality state constraints; probability density function truncation
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Vogel, S.; Alkhatib, H.; Bureick, J.; Moftizadeh, R.; Neumann, I. Georeferencing of Laser Scanner-Based Kinematic Multi-Sensor Systems in the Context of Iterated Extended Kalman Filters Using Geometrical Constraints. Sensors 2019, 19, 2280.

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