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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061817

Dynamics and Embedded Internet of Things Input Shaping Control for Overhead Cranes Transporting Multibody Payloads

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Pontevedra, Spain
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28903 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)

Abstract

Input shaping is an Optimal Control feedforward strategy whose ability to define how and when a flexible dynamical system defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) and computer controlled would move into its operative space, without command induced unwanted dynamics, has been exhaustively demonstrated. This work examines the issue of Embedded Internet of Things (IoT) Input Shaping with regard to real time control of multibody oscillatory systems whose dynamics are better described by differential algebraic equations (DAEs). An overhead crane hanging a double link multibody payload has been appointed as a benchmark case; it is a multibody, multimode system. This might be worst scenario to implement Input Shaping. The reasons can be found in the wide array of constraints that arise. Firstly, the reliability of the multibody model was tested on a Functional Mock-Up Interface (FMI) with the two link payload suspended from the trolley by comparing the experimental video tapping signals in time domain faced with the signals extracted from the multibody model. The FFTs of the simulated and the experimental signal contain the same frequency harmonics only with somewhat different power due to the real world light damping in the joints. The application of this approach may be extended to other cases i.e., the usefulness of mobile hydraulic cranes is limited because the payload is supported by an overhead cable under tension that allows oscillation to occur during crane motion. If the payload size is not negligible small when compared with the cable length may introduce an additional oscillatory mode that creates a multibody double pendulum. To give the insight into the double pendulum dynamics by Lagrangian methods two slender rods as payloads are analyzed dealing with the overhead crane and a composite revolute-revolute joint is proposed to model the cable of the hydraulic crane, both assumptions facilitates an affordable analysis. This allows developing a general study of this type of multibody payloads dynamics including its normal modes, modes ratios plus ranges of frequencies expected. Input Shapers were calculated for those multimodes of vibration by convolving Specified Insensitivity (SI) shapers for each mode plus a novel Direct SI-SI shaper well suited to reduce the computational requirements, i.e., the number of the shaper taps, to carry out the convolution sum in real time by the IoT device based on a single microcontroller working as the command generator. Several comparisons are presented for the shaped and unshaped responses using both the multibody model, the experimental FMI set-up and finally a real world hydraulic crane under slewing motion commanded by an analog Joystick connected by two RF modules 802.15.4 to the IoT device that carry out the convolution sum in real time. Input Shaping improves the performances for all the cases.
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Keywords: Input Shaping; multibody; multimode; Embedded-IoT; feedforward real-time control; Functional Mock-Up Interface (FMI); video processing; Wireless Data Transmission 802.14.5 radios Input Shaping; multibody; multimode; Embedded-IoT; feedforward real-time control; Functional Mock-Up Interface (FMI); video processing; Wireless Data Transmission 802.14.5 radios
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peláez, G.; Vaugan, J.; Izquierdo, P.; Rubio, H.; García-Prada, J.C. Dynamics and Embedded Internet of Things Input Shaping Control for Overhead Cranes Transporting Multibody Payloads. Sensors 2018, 18, 1817.

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