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Article

A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints

1
Laboratory of Advanced Software Systems (LASSY), CSC Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre, L-4364 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
2
CSA Group, University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
RealTime-at-Work (RTaW), 4 Rue Piroux, 54000 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020628
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Implementation of Future CPS)
Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency). This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language), an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system.
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Keywords: model-driven engineering; control software; timing tolerance contract; controller model; schedulability; stability; input jitters; varying execution-times; output jitters; input-to-output delay; co-simulation; real-time scheduling; control system performance model-driven engineering; control software; timing tolerance contract; controller model; schedulability; stability; input jitters; varying execution-times; output jitters; input-to-output delay; co-simulation; real-time scheduling; control system performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sundharam, S.M.; Navet, N.; Altmeyer, S.; Havet, L. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints. Sensors 2018, 18, 628. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020628

AMA Style

Sundharam SM, Navet N, Altmeyer S, Havet L. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints. Sensors. 2018; 18(2):628. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020628

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sundharam, Sakthivel M., Nicolas Navet, Sebastian Altmeyer, and Lionel Havet. 2018. "A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints" Sensors 18, no. 2: 628. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020628

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