Next Article in Journal
Compact Hip-Force Sensor for a Gait-Assistance Exoskeleton System
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimal Scheduling and Fair Service Policy for STDMA in Underwater Networks with Acoustic Communications
Previous Article in Journal
Hydrogel-Based Fluorescent Dual pH and Oxygen Sensors Loaded in 96-Well Plates for High-Throughput Cell Metabolism Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Efficient Data Transmission for Sensors with Wireless Charging
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
Thomas Johann Seebeck Department of Electronics, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn 19086, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 565;
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms for Sensor Networks)
PDF [1808 KB, uploaded 9 July 2018]


The fabrication of lightweight, ultra-thin, low power and intelligent body-borne sensors leads to novel advances in wireless body area networks (WBANs). Depending on the placement of the nodes, it is characterized as in/on body WBAN; thus, the channel is largely affected by body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature and climatic conditions. The energy resources are limited and it is not feasible to replace the sensor’s battery frequently. In order to keep the sensor in working condition, the channel resources should be reserved. The lifetime of the sensor is very crucial and it highly depends on transmission among sensor nodes and energy consumption. The reliability and energy efficiency in WBAN applications play a vital role. In this paper, the analytical expressions for energy efficiency (EE) and packet error rate (PER) are formulated for two-way relay cooperative communication. The results depict better reliability and efficiency compared to direct and one-way relay communication. The effective performance range of direct vs. cooperative communication is separated by a threshold distance. Based on EE calculations, an optimal packet size is observed that provides maximum efficiency over a certain link length. A smart and energy efficient system is articulated that utilizes all three communication modes, namely direct, one-way relay and two-way relay, as the direct link performs better for a certain range, but the cooperative communication gives better results for increased distance in terms of EE. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid scheme is also demonstrated over a practical quasi-static channel. Furthermore, link length extension and diversity is achieved by joint network-channel (JNC) coding the cooperative link. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless body area networks; two-way relay cooperation; energy efficiency; quasi-static channel; joint network-channel coding wireless body area networks; two-way relay cooperation; energy efficiency; quasi-static channel; joint network-channel coding

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Waheed, M.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmed, W.; Drieberg, M.; Alam, M.M. Towards Efficient Wireless Body Area Network Using Two-Way Relay Cooperation. Sensors 2018, 18, 565.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top