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Open AccessArticle

A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring

School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Science, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT 06825, USA
School of Computing, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT 06825, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 533;
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Gait, Posture, and Health Monitoring)
There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm2, with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings. View Full-Text
Keywords: sweat sensor; sweat rate; dehydration; IoT; PDMS sweat sensor; sweat rate; dehydration; IoT; PDMS
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Brueck, A.; Iftekhar, T.; Stannard, A.B.; Yelamarthi, K.; Kaya, T. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring. Sensors 2018, 18, 533.

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