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Open AccessArticle

Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

by 1,2, 1,2,*, 1,2 and 1,2
1
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi’an 710072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020319
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Underwater Sensor Networks)
Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near the bottom in deep ocean direct-arrival zones. View Full-Text
Keywords: vertical directionality; correlation; low frequency; ambient noise; deep ocean vertical directionality; correlation; low frequency; ambient noise; deep ocean
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Q.; Yang, K.; Cao, R.; Duan, S. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones. Sensors 2018, 18, 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020319

AMA Style

Yang Q, Yang K, Cao R, Duan S. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones. Sensors. 2018; 18(2):319. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020319

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli. 2018. "Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones" Sensors 18, no. 2: 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020319

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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