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Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4332;

Deformation Analysis of a Composite Bridge during Proof Loading Using Point Cloud Processing

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
PDF [4464 KB, uploaded 7 December 2018]


Remote sensing in structural diagnostics has recently been gaining attention. These techniques allow the creation of three-dimensional projections of the measured objects, and are relatively easy to use. One of the most popular branches of remote sensing is terrestrial laser scanning. Laser scanners are fast and efficient, gathering up to one million points per second. However, the weakness of terrestrial laser scanning is the troublesome processing of point clouds. Currently, many studies deal with the subject of point cloud processing in various areas, but it seems that there are not many clear procedures that we can use in practice, which indicates that point cloud processing is one of the biggest challenges of this issue. To tackle that challenge we propose a general framework for studying the structural deformations of bridges. We performed an advanced object shape analysis of a composite foot-bridge, which is subject to spatial deformations during the proof loading process. The added value of this work is the comprehensive procedure for bridge evaluation, and adaptation of the spheres translation method procedure for use in bridge engineering. The aforementioned method is accurate for the study of structural element deformation under monotonic load. The study also includes a comparative analysis between results from the spheres translation method, a total station, and a deflectometer. The results are characterized by a high degree of convergence and reveal the highly complex state of deformation more clearly than can be concluded from other measurement methods, proving that laser scanning is a good method for examining bridge structures with several competitive advantages over mainstream measurement methods.
Keywords: civil engineering; geomatics engineering; point cloud processing; sensor fusion; structural diagnostics civil engineering; geomatics engineering; point cloud processing; sensor fusion; structural diagnostics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ziolkowski, P.; Szulwic, J.; Miskiewicz, M. Deformation Analysis of a Composite Bridge during Proof Loading Using Point Cloud Processing. Sensors 2018, 18, 4332.

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