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Open AccessArticle

Conformal and Disposable Antenna-Based Sensor for Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring

1
Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt
2
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124088
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Microwave Imaging and Detection)
This paper presents a feasibility study for a non-wearable, conformal, low cost, and disposable antenna-based sensor for non-invasive hydration monitoring using sweat. It is composed of a patch antenna implemented on a cellulose filter paper substrate and operating in the range 2–4 GHz. The paper substrate can absorb liquids, such as sweat on the skin, through two slots incorporated within the antenna structure. Thus, the substrate dielectric properties are altered according to the properties of the absorbed liquid. Changes in reflection-based measurements are used to analyze salt solutions and artificial sweat, specifically the amount of sampled solution and the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration. Using the shift in resonant frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient, NaCl concentrations in the range of 8.5–200 mmol/L, representing different hydration states, are detected. The measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using microwave based measurements for hydration monitoring using sweat. View Full-Text
Keywords: patch antenna; paper substrate; hydration sensor; sweat monitoring; disposable sensor; microwave sensing; biosensing patch antenna; paper substrate; hydration sensor; sweat monitoring; disposable sensor; microwave sensing; biosensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eldamak, A.R.; Fear, E.C. Conformal and Disposable Antenna-Based Sensor for Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring. Sensors 2018, 18, 4088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124088

AMA Style

Eldamak AR, Fear EC. Conformal and Disposable Antenna-Based Sensor for Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring. Sensors. 2018; 18(12):4088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eldamak, Angie R.; Fear, Elise C. 2018. "Conformal and Disposable Antenna-Based Sensor for Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring" Sensors 18, no. 12: 4088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124088

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