This paper presents a feasibility study for a non-wearable, conformal, low cost, and disposable antenna-based sensor for non-invasive hydration monitoring using sweat. It is composed of a patch antenna implemented on a cellulose filter paper substrate and operating in the range 2–4 GHz. The paper substrate can absorb liquids, such as sweat on the skin, through two slots incorporated within the antenna structure. Thus, the substrate dielectric properties are altered according to the properties of the absorbed liquid. Changes in reflection-based measurements are used to analyze salt solutions and artificial sweat, specifically the amount of sampled solution and the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration. Using the shift in resonant frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient, NaCl concentrations in the range of 8.5–200 mmol/L, representing different hydration states, are detected. The measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using microwave based measurements for hydration monitoring using sweat.
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