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Article

Measurement of Core Body Temperature Using Graphene-Inked Infrared Thermopile Sensor

1
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
2
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103315
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Surfaces in Sensing Systems)
Continuous and reliable measurements of core body temperature (CBT) are vital for studies on human thermoregulation. Because tympanic membrane directly reflects the temperature of the carotid artery, it is an accurate and non-invasive method to record CBT. However, commercial tympanic thermometers lack portability and continuous measurements. In this study, graphene inks were utilized to increase the accuracy of the temperature measurements from the ear by coating graphene platelets on the lens of an infrared thermopile sensor. The proposed ear-based device was designed by investigating ear canal geometry and developed with 3D printing technology using the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software, SolidWorks 2016. It employs an Arduino Pro Mini and a Bluetooth module. The proposed system runs with a 3.7 V, 850 mAh rechargeable lithium-polymer battery that allows long-term, continuous monitoring. Raw data are continuously and wirelessly plotted on a mobile phone app. The test was performed on 10 subjects under resting and exercising in a total period of 25 min. Achieved results were compared with the commercially available Braun Thermoscan, Original Thermopile, and Cosinuss One ear thermometers. It is also comprehended that such system will be useful in personalized medicine as wearable in-ear device with wireless connectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: core body temperature; graphene ink; infrared thermopile sensor; distant measurement; ear canal sensing core body temperature; graphene ink; infrared thermopile sensor; distant measurement; ear canal sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chaglla E., J.S.; Celik, N.; Balachandran, W. Measurement of Core Body Temperature Using Graphene-Inked Infrared Thermopile Sensor. Sensors 2018, 18, 3315. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103315

AMA Style

Chaglla E. JS, Celik N, Balachandran W. Measurement of Core Body Temperature Using Graphene-Inked Infrared Thermopile Sensor. Sensors. 2018; 18(10):3315. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103315

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaglla E., Jorge S., Numan Celik, and Wamadeva Balachandran. 2018. "Measurement of Core Body Temperature Using Graphene-Inked Infrared Thermopile Sensor" Sensors 18, no. 10: 3315. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103315

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