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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 217;

Introduction to State Estimation of High-Rate System Dynamics

1,2,*,†, 2,†, 3,† and 4,†
Applied Research Associates, Emerald Coast Division, Niceville, FL 32578, USA
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542, USA
Energy Technologies and Materials, University of Dayton Research Institution, Dayton, OH 45469, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring)
PDF [1092 KB, uploaded 16 January 2018]


Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer’s convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued that adaptive observers are important to this research. In particular, adaptive data-driven observers are advantageous due to their adaptability and lack of dependence on the system model. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive observers; high-rate; state estimation; dynamics; structural health monitoring adaptive observers; high-rate; state estimation; dynamics; structural health monitoring

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Hong, J.; Laflamme, S.; Dodson, J.; Joyce, B. Introduction to State Estimation of High-Rate System Dynamics. Sensors 2018, 18, 217.

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