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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010188

Error Recovery in the Time-Triggered Paradigm with FTT-CAN

1
Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-188 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Dep. Electrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Faculdade de Engenharia, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Data networks are naturally prone to interferences that can corrupt messages, leading to performance degradation or even to critical failure of the corresponding distributed system. To improve resilience of critical systems, time-triggered networks are frequently used, based on communication schedules defined at design-time. These networks offer prompt error detection, but slow error recovery that can only be compensated with bandwidth overprovisioning. On the contrary, the Flexible Time-Triggered (FTT) paradigm uses online traffic scheduling, which enables a compromise between error detection and recovery that can achieve timely recovery with a fraction of the needed bandwidth. This article presents a new method to recover transmission errors in a time-triggered Controller Area Network (CAN) network, based on the Flexible Time-Triggered paradigm, namely FTT-CAN. The method is based on using a server (traffic shaper) to regulate the retransmission of corrupted or omitted messages. We show how to design the server to simultaneously: (1) meet a predefined reliability goal, when considering worst case error recovery scenarios bounded probabilistically by a Poisson process that models the fault arrival rate; and, (2) limit the direct and indirect interference in the message set, preserving overall system schedulability. Extensive simulations with multiple scenarios, based on practical and randomly generated systems, show a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the average bandwidth taken by the proposed error recovery mechanism, when compared with traditional approaches available in the literature based on adding extra pre-defined transmission slots. View Full-Text
Keywords: flexible time-triggered; fault-tolerance; time-triggered; CAN; server; scheduling; temporal redundancy; real-time systems flexible time-triggered; fault-tolerance; time-triggered; CAN; server; scheduling; temporal redundancy; real-time systems
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Marques, L.; Vasconcelos, V.; Pedreiras, P.; Almeida, L. Error Recovery in the Time-Triggered Paradigm with FTT-CAN. Sensors 2018, 18, 188.

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