Next Article in Journal
An Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink-Based Unequal Clustering Mechanism for WSNs
Next Article in Special Issue
Classification of Data from Electronic Nose Using Gradient Tree Boosting Algorithm
Previous Article in Journal
Deep Source Localization with Magnetoencephalography Based on Sensor Array Decomposition and Beamforming
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1859;

Effects of Dilution Systems in Olfactometry on the Recovery of Typical Livestock Odorants Determined by PTR-MS

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Hangøvej 2, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
Olfasense GmbH, Fraunhoferstraße 13, DE-24118 Kiel, Germany
FORCE Technology, Park Allé 345, DK-2605 Brøndby, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Olfaction and Taste)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2463 KB, uploaded 11 August 2017]   |  


The present study provides an elaborate assessment of the performance of olfactometers in terms of odorant recovery for a selection of odorants emitted from livestock houses. The study includes three different olfactometer dilution systems, which have been in use at accredited odor laboratories. They consist of: (i) a custom-built olfactometer made of glass tubes, (ii) a TO8 olfactometer, and (iii) an Olfacton dilution system based on a mass flow controller. The odorants include hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, and trimethylamine. Furthermore, n-butanol, as the reference gas in the European standard for olfactometry, EN13725, was included. All measurements were performed in real time with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The results show that only dimethyl sulfide was almost completely recovered in all cases, while for the remaining compounds, the performance was found to vary significantly (from 0 to 100%) depending on the chemical properties of the compounds, the concentration levels, the pulse duration, and the olfactometer material. To elucidate the latter, the recovery in different locations of the TO8 olfactometer and in tubes of different materials, that is, poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), stainless steel and SilcoTek-coated steel, were tested. Significant saturation effects were observed when odorants were in contact with stainless steel. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic olfactometry; EN13725; olfactometer; PTR-MS; odor; n-butanol dynamic olfactometry; EN13725; olfactometer; PTR-MS; odor; n-butanol

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kasper, P.L.; Mannebeck, D.; Oxbøl, A.; Nygaard, J.V.; Hansen, M.J.; Feilberg, A. Effects of Dilution Systems in Olfactometry on the Recovery of Typical Livestock Odorants Determined by PTR-MS. Sensors 2017, 17, 1859.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top