Next Article in Journal
Passive Sensors for Long Duration Internet of Things Networks
Next Article in Special Issue
In Memoriam: Paolo Cappa
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Domingues Franceschini, M.H.; et al. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production. Sensors 2017, 17, 1428
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102270

A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2794 KB, uploaded 9 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation), and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA) between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF) sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoelectric ceramic sensors; structural health monitoring; piezopolymer sensors; CFRP laminates; impact localization piezoelectric ceramic sensors; structural health monitoring; piezopolymer sensors; CFRP laminates; impact localization
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Merlo, E.M.; Bulletti, A.; Giannelli, P.; Calzolai, M.; Capineri, L. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets. Sensors 2017, 17, 2270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top