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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2166;

Design and Analysis of an Efficient Energy Algorithm in Wireless Social Sensor Networks

School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA
Department of Computer Science and Technology, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310037, China
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 97187 Lulea, Sweden
College of Computer and Information Sciences, Almuzahmiyah, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Because mobile ad hoc networks have characteristics such as lack of center nodes, multi-hop routing and changeable topology, the existing checkpoint technologies for normal mobile networks cannot be applied well to mobile ad hoc networks. Considering the multi-frequency hierarchy structure of ad hoc networks, this paper proposes a hybrid checkpointing strategy which combines the techniques of synchronous checkpointing with asynchronous checkpointing, namely the checkpoints of mobile terminals in the same cluster remain synchronous, and the checkpoints in different clusters remain asynchronous. This strategy could not only avoid cascading rollback among the processes in the same cluster, but also avoid too many message transmissions among the processes in different clusters. What is more, it can reduce the communication delay. In order to assure the consistency of the global states, this paper discusses the correctness criteria of hybrid checkpointing, which includes the criteria of checkpoint taking, rollback recovery and indelibility. Based on the designed Intra-Cluster Checkpoint Dependence Graph and Inter-Cluster Checkpoint Dependence Graph, the elimination rules for different kinds of checkpoints are discussed, and the algorithms for the same cluster checkpoints, different cluster checkpoints, and rollback recovery are also given. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed hybrid checkpointing strategy is a preferable trade-off method, which not only synthetically takes all kinds of resource constraints of Ad hoc networks into account, but also outperforms the existing schemes in terms of the dependence to cluster heads, the recovery time compared to the pure synchronous, and the pure asynchronous checkpoint advantage. View Full-Text
Keywords: ad hoc network; mobile communication; synchronous checkpointing; asynchronous checkpointing; hybrid checkpointing ad hoc network; mobile communication; synchronous checkpointing; asynchronous checkpointing; hybrid checkpointing

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Xiong, N.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Vasilakos, A.V.; Imran, M. Design and Analysis of an Efficient Energy Algorithm in Wireless Social Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 2166.

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