Next Article in Journal
Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars
Next Article in Special Issue
Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea
Previous Article in Journal
Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reversible NO2 Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor Based on LuPc2 Using Simultaneous Transmission of UV and Visible Light
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 14415-14434;

Submersible Spectrofluorometer for Real-Time Sensing of Water Quality

Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory, ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ki-Hyun Kim
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Sensing Pollution in Air, Water, and Soil)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4189 KB, uploaded 18 June 2015]   |  


In this work, we present a newly developed submersible spectrofluorometer (patent pending) applied to real-time sensing of water quality, suitable for monitoring some important indicators of the ecological status of natural waters such as chlorophyll-a, oil and protein-like material. For the optomechanical realization of the apparatus, a novel conceptual design has been adopted in order to avoid filters and pumps while maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. The elimination of filters and pumps has the advantage of greater system simplicity and especially of avoiding the risk of sample degradation. The use of light-emitting diodes as an excitation source instead of Xe lamps or laser diodes helped save on size, weight, power consumption and costs. For sensor calibration we performed measurements on water samples with added chlorophyll prepared in the laboratory. The sensor functionality was tested during field campaigns conducted at Albano Lake in Latium Region of Italy as well as in the Herzliya Harbor, a few kilometers North East of Tel Aviv in Israel. The obtained results are reported in the paper. The sensitivity achieved for chlorophyll-a detection was found to be at least 0.2 µg/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: light-induced fluorescence; spectrofluorometric sensor; water quality; chlorophyll detection light-induced fluorescence; spectrofluorometric sensor; water quality; chlorophyll detection

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Puiu, A.; Fiorani, L.; Menicucci, I.; Pistilli, M.; Lai, A. Submersible Spectrofluorometer for Real-Time Sensing of Water Quality. Sensors 2015, 15, 14415-14434.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top