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Open AccessReview

Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

1
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh KY16 9SS, St Andrews, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephane Evoy
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13680-13704; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150613680
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 24 May 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Pathogen Detection)
Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; cancer detection; cell sensor; fluorescence background Raman spectroscopy; cancer detection; cell sensor; fluorescence background
MDPI and ACS Style

De Luca, A.C.; Dholakia, K.; Mazilu, M. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level. Sensors 2015, 15, 13680-13704.

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