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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 8787-8831;

Optical Nano Antennas: State of the Art, Scope and Challenges as a Biosensor Along with Human Exposure to Nano-Toxicology

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Selim Ünlü
Received: 18 November 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Optical Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2014 KB, uploaded 15 April 2015]   |  


The concept of optical antennas in physical optics is still evolving. Like the antennas used in the radio frequency (RF) regime, the aspiration of optical antennas is to localize the free propagating radiation energy, and vice versa. For this purpose, optical antennas utilize the distinctive properties of metal nanostructures, which are strong plasmonic coupling elements at the optical regime. The concept of optical antennas is being advanced technologically and they are projected to be substitute devices for detection in the millimeter, infrared, and visible regimes. At present, their potential benefits in light detection, which include polarization dependency, tunability, and quick response times have been successfully demonstrated. Optical antennas also can be seen as directionally responsive elements for point detectors. This review provides an overview of the historical background of the topic, along with the basic concepts and parameters of optical antennas. One of the major parts of this review covers the use of optical antennas in biosensing, presenting biosensing applications with a broad description using different types of data. We have also mentioned the basic challenges in the path of the universal use of optical biosensors, where we have also discussed some legal matters. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; optical nano-antenna; nano-toxicology biosensor; optical nano-antenna; nano-toxicology

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kausar, A.S.M.Z.; Reza, A.W.; Latef, T.A.; Ullah, M.H.; Karim, M.E. Optical Nano Antennas: State of the Art, Scope and Challenges as a Biosensor Along with Human Exposure to Nano-Toxicology. Sensors 2015, 15, 8787-8831.

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