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Sensors 2015, 15(2), 4001-4018;

Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester

Dpto. de Ingeniería Rural, Universidad de Córdoba, Área de Mecanización y Tecnología Rural, Córdoba 14005, Spain
Aerospace Engineering and Fluid Mechanics Department, University of Seville, Ctra. Sevilla-Utrera km 1, 41013 Seville, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5592 KB, uploaded 10 February 2015]


Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver’s work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote data acquisition; precision agriculture; effective field capacity; field efficiency remote data acquisition; precision agriculture; effective field capacity; field efficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Castillo-Ruiz, F.J.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Gil-Ribes, J.A.; Agüera, J. Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester. Sensors 2015, 15, 4001-4018.

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