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Sensors 2015, 15(11), 27854-27868;

Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad C/ Plaza de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca 37008, Spain
Departamento BiologíaVegetal y Ciencias del Suelo. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas, Ourense 32004, Spain
Tecnología de los Alimentos, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Zamora, Avda Requejo 33, Zamora 49022, Spain
Producción Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales, Universidad. Avda, Filiberto Villalobos, Salamanca 119-129, Spain
Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Avda. Vicente Méndez, 595 Chillán, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 16 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors based on In Situ Spectroscopy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [984 KB, uploaded 3 November 2015]   |  


The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; mineral composition; lead; near-infrared spectroscopy; determination; cross-validation propolis; mineral composition; lead; near-infrared spectroscopy; determination; cross-validation

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González-Martín, M.I.; Escuredo, O.; Revilla, I.; Vivar-Quintana, A.M.; Coello, M.C.; Riocerezo, C.P.; Moncada, G.W. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Sensors 2015, 15, 27854-27868.

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