Next Article in Journal
Experimental Validation of Normalized Uniform Load Surface Curvature Method for Damage Localization
Next Article in Special Issue
Addendum: Hochreiter, B.; Pardo-Garcia, A.; Schmid, J.A. Fluorescent Proteins as Genetically Encoded FRET Biosensors in Life Sciences. Sensors 2015, 15, 26281–26314
Previous Article in Journal
Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling
Previous Article in Special Issue
FRET-Based Nanobiosensors for Imaging Intracellular Ca2+ and H+ Microdomains
Article Menu

Export Article

Addendum published on 18 November 2015, see Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29182.

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 26281-26314;

Fluorescent Proteins as Genetically Encoded FRET Biosensors in Life Sciences

Institute for Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Medical University Vienna, Schwarzspanierstraße17, Vienna A-1090, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Niko Hildebrandt, Igor Medintz and Russ Algar
Received: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRET Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1550 KB, uploaded 16 October 2015]   |  


Fluorescence- or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a measurable physical energy transfer phenomenon between appropriate chromophores, when they are in sufficient proximity, usually within 10 nm. This feature has made them incredibly useful tools for many biomedical studies on molecular interactions. Furthermore, this principle is increasingly exploited for the design of biosensors, where two chromophores are linked with a sensory domain controlling their distance and thus the degree of FRET. The versatility of these FRET-biosensors made it possible to assess a vast amount of biological variables in a fast and standardized manner, allowing not only high-throughput studies but also sub-cellular measurements of biological processes. In this review, we aim at giving an overview over the recent advances in genetically encoded, fluorescent-protein based FRET-biosensors, as these represent the largest and most vividly growing group of FRET-based sensors. For easy understanding, we are grouping them into four categories, depending on their molecular mechanism. These are based on: (a) cleavage; (b) conformational-change; (c) mechanical force and (d) changes in the micro-environment. We also address the many issues and considerations that come with the development of FRET-based biosensors, as well as the possibilities that are available to measure them. View Full-Text
Keywords: FRET; fluorescence; biosensors; imaging FRET; fluorescence; biosensors; imaging

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hochreiter, B.; Pardo-Garcia, A.; Schmid, J.A. Fluorescent Proteins as Genetically Encoded FRET Biosensors in Life Sciences. Sensors 2015, 15, 26281-26314.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top