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Open AccessArticle

Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization

1
Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd., 3 Kanda-neribei-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0022, Japan
2
Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Kourosh Khoshelham
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25157-25175; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151025157
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Indoor Mapping and Navigation)
A hyperbolic positioning method with antenna arrays consisting of proximately-located antennas and a multi-channel pseudolite is proposed in order to overcome the problems of indoor positioning with conventional pseudolites (ground-based GPS transmitters). A two-dimensional positioning experiment using actual devices is conducted. The experimental result shows that the positioning accuracy varies centimeter- to meter-level according to the geometric relation between the pseudolite antennas and the receiver. It also shows that the bias error of the carrier-phase difference observables is more serious than their random error. Based on the size of the bias error of carrier-phase difference that is inverse-calculated from the experimental result, three-dimensional positioning performance is evaluated by computer simulation. In addition, in the three-dimensional positioning scenario, an initial value convergence analysis of the non-linear least squares is conducted. Its result shows that initial values that can converge to a right position exist at least under the proposed antenna setup. The simulated values and evaluation methods introduced in this work can be applied to various antenna setups; therefore, by using them, positioning performance can be predicted in advance of installing an actual system. View Full-Text
Keywords: pseudolite; hyperbolic positioning; indoor positioning; GPS pseudolite; hyperbolic positioning; indoor positioning; GPS
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Fujii, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Wang, W.; Arie, H.; Schmitz, A.; Sugano, S. Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization. Sensors 2015, 15, 25157-25175.

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