Next Article in Journal
A Small and Slim Coaxial Probe for Single Rice Grain Moisture Sensing
Next Article in Special Issue
A Solid-Contact Ion Selective Electrode for Copper(II) Using a Succinimide Derivative as Ionophore
Previous Article in Journal
Fluorescent Imaging for Assessment of the Effect of Combined Application of Electroporation and Rifampicin on HaCaT Cells as a New Therapeutic Approach for Psoriasis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3635-3651;

Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode

Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1207 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  


Abstract: We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes with the addition of a miniature concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The graphene ring electrode is formed by dip coating fibre optics with graphene produced by a modified Hummers method. The reference electrode is formed using an established photocatalytically initiated electroless deposition (PIED) plating method. The performance of the so-formed graphene ring micro electrodes (GRiMEs) and associated reference electrode is studied using the probe redox system ferricyanide and electrode thicknesses assessed using established electrochemical methods. Using 220 µm diameter fibre optics, a ~15 nm thick graphene ring electrode is obtained corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring microelectrodes in data analysis. GRiMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3,000 scans), with the concentric reference electrode showing comparable stability (current response invariant over >300 scans). Furthermore the micro-ring design allows for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites and the associated nA scale currents obtained neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring microelectrodes improves the reliability of existing micro-electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene electrode; ring electrode; graphene electrochemistry; nano graphene electrode; ring electrode; graphene electrochemistry; nano

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dickinson, J.W.; Bromley, M.; Andrieux, F.P.L.; Boxall, C. Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode. Sensors 2013, 13, 3635-3651.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top