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Sensors 2013, 13(2), 1523-1538;

Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (reg. Assoc.), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
CSCE Department, University of Arkansas, JBHT-CSCE 515, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 15 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 24 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1633 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart camera; NDVI; image processing; plant sensor; embedded system smart camera; NDVI; image processing; plant sensor; embedded system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dworak, V.; Selbeck, J.; Dammer, K.-H.; Hoffmann, M.; Zarezadeh, A.A.; Bobda, C. Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems. Sensors 2013, 13, 1523-1538.

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