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Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System

Department of Geomatics, National Cheng-Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Department of Geomatics Engineering, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2011, 11(7), 7243-7261;
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada)
PDF [694 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS) is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS). The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters). In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mobile Mapping Systems; direct sensor orientation; camera calibration; direct georeferencing; mounting parameters Mobile Mapping Systems; direct sensor orientation; camera calibration; direct georeferencing; mounting parameters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rau, J.-Y.; Habib, A.F.; Kersting, A.P.; Chiang, K.-W.; Bang, K.-I.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Li, Y.-H. Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System. Sensors 2011, 11, 7243-7261.

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