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Crustacea Decapoda from the Rhodes Island Area (Eastern Mediterranean): New Records and an Updated Checklist

Gerasimos Kondylatos
Fabio Crocetta
Maria Corsini-Foka
1 and
Carlo Froglia
Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes, Cos Street, GR-85100 Rhodes, Greece
Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, I-80121 Naples, Italy
C.N.R.—Institute for the Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnologies (IRBIM), Largo Fiera della Pesca, I-60125 Ancona, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(6), 246;
Submission received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)


Decapod crustaceans are ecologically and commercially important members of marine communities. Faunal surveys constitute essential tools for the understanding of local diversity, especially in areas subjected to significant alterations of community composition due to climate changes, anthropogenic impacts, and biological invasions. Following a literature review and the study of new samples, we hereby update on the Crustacea Decapoda from the Rhodes Island area (Greece), situated in a key position in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Published data yielded records of 120 species, whereas 28 taxa are recorded here for the first time from the study area. Among them, the collection of Liocarcinus bolivari widens its distribution to the eastern Mediterranean. Details on material examined and distributional/faunal remarks are provided for the species newly recorded and for some other native and alien species rarely reported from Rhodes. The present paper raises the local decapod biodiversity to 148 species, accounting for ~50% of the Hellenic Aegean decapod fauna and provides a useful baseline for analysing the long-term changes in the local fauna and the westward spreading of Lessepsian species. Despite present advances, the lack of records of many common Mediterranean species may be still due to limited fieldwork in some habitats rather than a true absence.

1. Introduction

Decapod crustaceans are one of the most important groups in the marine ecosystem, not only from a biodiversity point of view, but also as fishery resources [1]. Despite of that, knowledge of decapods diversity and distribution, even in a “well-known” basin such as the Mediterranean Sea, is still an ongoing process. Moreover, in habitats diversified and heavily affected by biological invasions, faunal surveys are not only essential for improving knowledge of the local diversity, but also constitute an useful baseline for analysing long-term changes in the composition and functioning of the biota, and eventual biodiversity loss [2].
In fact, the warming of the Mediterranean Sea, and in particular of its eastern part [3,4,5], the temporary changes in the south Aegean water mass characteristics, that have considerably influenced the thermohaline circulation of the eastern Mediterranean (Eastern Mediterranean Transient) [6,7], along with anthropogenic impacts and biological invasions, considerably affect the distribution of marine organisms and their communities’ structure and function both at a basin and at a local scale [8,9].
Rhodes is an island located in the southeastern Aegean Sea, close to the northwestern Levant Sea. The position of the island is interesting from the oceanographical and biological point of view, due to the intense hydrological phenomena of the surrounding marine area, such as the Rhodes gyre and the Asia Minor Current, while its pelagic and subtropical marine environment is favorable to the native thermophilic biota and to the tropical or subtropical alien biota as well [10,11].
This key position led to a flourishment of zoological studies, and the knowledge on the decapod crustacean diversity along the coasts of Rhodes Island has been the subject of several studies in the recent decades. In the first decapods checklist for the area, Lewinsohn [12], listed 45 marine species including those reported in previous literature. The local checklist was subsequently updated to 83 species by Kevrekidis & Galil [13], and lastly to 109 species by Corsini-Foka and Pancucci-Papadopoulou [14]. Since then, additional single species records were reported by various researchers as a result of intensification of biological surveys on previously undersampled habitats and of increasing interest and contribution of citizen scientists in observing and recording species (e.g., [15,16,17,18]). These last contributions raised the final list to 120 species.
Notwithstanding the efforts mentioned above, these numbers suggest that local biodiversity is still underexplored. We hereby update the current knowledge of the Rhodian decapod biota based on published literature and the study of new samples and provide new information on decapod distribution in the Aegean and the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Data reported on alien and native species rarely recorded in the area may assist in the overall assessment of the Hellenic and eastern Mediterranean biodiversity.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

The sea floor of Rhodes presents a very narrow continental shelf, with coastal areas characterized by a variety of intermingling substrates, spanning from sands and muds with or without Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile patches or meadows to pebbly and rocky bottoms [19]. Greater depths are characterized by muddy substrates, and presence of several submarine canyons [19]. In the last decades, the area has been widely colonized by alien species (e.g., [20,21]).

2.2. Sampling

The material analysed here came from 20 sampling sites widely distributed along the Rhodes coastline and four trawling grounds (Table 1; Figure 1). Sampling areas were either chosen by us according to their proximity to the Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes (HSR) or according to the fishing areas exploited by local fishermen. The material was mostly obtained from May 2013 to November 2019, although it was later increased by additional samples from 2008 onwards. Samples altogether come from three different sources: (i) targeted activities carried out by the HSR; (ii) a COST Action TD1209-ALIEN Challenge held in 2014; (iii) the analysis of the by-catch of Italian commercial trawlers fishing for “red shrimps” off Rhodes. Shallow waters (0–3 m) were investigated by snorkelling, and the specimens were picked by hand or with the help of a hand net (HN). Hard and soft infralitoral grounds down to ~30 m were investigated with gill nets (GN) and trammel nets (TN) as well as with boat-seine with 8 mm mesh size in the cod-end (BS, Danish method), operated by a professional fishing vessel (length 10.8 m, engine power 53 Kw). Posidonia oceanica meadows down to ~20 m were sampled during night hours with an epibenthic sledge (ES), with a bag made of plankton net with 1 mm mesh size, towed from a fishing vessel (length 8.25 m, engine power 38 Kw). Sandy and muddy circalittoral bottoms (~80–200 m) were investigated only with shrimp traps (ST) (diameter 60–70 cm, mesh opening 20 mm), deployed by a fishing vessel (length 9 m, engine power 18.6 Kw). Finally, bathyal samples (~600–750 m) were obtained from Italian commercial bottom trawlers (BT), fishing with otter-board trawl nets with 50 mm mesh opening in the cod-end.

2.3. Laboratory Work

Samples obtained through the first two sources were sorted out from the material collected and subsequently photographed alive. Samples obtained from commercial trawlers were frozen onboard and subsequently delivered to the authors. Following identification, specimens were sorted by sex, keeping record of the presence of ovigerous females (ov), and measured. Measurements were taken to the nearest 0.1 mm with a digital caliper or by means of an ocular micrometer under stereomicroscope. Size is given as: (i) carapace length (CL), from rear margin of orbit to mid-dorsal posterior margin of carapace in shrimps, or from front margin (tip of rostrum) to posterior margin of carapace in crabs; (ii) shield length (SL), from front margin to posterior margin of cervical groove in hermit crabs.
Species identification was based on Zariquiey Álvarez [22], or on more recent specialistic reviews (references under single species). Updated nomenclature was based on World Register of Marine Species [23]. Voucher specimens, preserved in 80% ethanol, were deposited in the collections of the Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes (HSR, Greece) and of the Museum of Natural History of Verona (MSNVR, Italy).

3. Results

3.1. New Records and Updated Checklist

We report here unpublished data for 39 taxa. Twenty-eight of them are new records for the Rhodes Island area [12,13,14], whereas the remaining 11 species, mainly non-indigenous, are rather common nowadays, despite the paucity of published records of their presence in the area.
Single records are briefly discussed in next section, with new records from Rhodes and alien species highlighted respectively with * (asterisk) and (A) after the species name.
Present data raise the number of decapod species known from the area to 148, accounting for 56 families. Among the species listed here, 126 are natives (86%), whilst 22 are alien (14%), with the latter species mostly distributed in the families Portunidae (7 taxa) and Penaeidae (6 taxa).
In the updated checklist (Table 2), references for the first record of each species are also provided.

3.2. Systematics of Species with Specimens Examined

  • Family ARISTEIDAE Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
    • Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) *
      • Aristaeomorpha foliacea—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 42, Figures 22a,b and 24a.
        • Material examined: T3, 600–650 m (BT), 8.xi.2019: 3♂ CL 32.1–38.2 mm, 6♀ CL 34.3–55.9 mm; T4, 650–750 m (BT), 19.xi.2019: 2♂ CL 30.7–31.4 mm, 3♀ CL 27.6–54.8 mm.
        • Remarks: A cosmopolitan species known from Indo-Pacific, western and eastern Atlantic, and Mediterranean [58]. This highly prized shrimp is the target of commercial trawlers fishing off Rhodes.
    • Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) *
      • Aristeus antennatus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 46, Figures 17b, 22c,d and 23a–c.
        • Material examined: T3, 600–650 m (BT), 8.xi.2019: 1♂ CL 29.3 mm, 9♀ CL 27–53.6 mm; T4, 650–750 m (BT), 19.xi.2019: 8♂ CL 19.1–32.2 mm, 7♀ CL 18–49.5 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from Indian Ocean, eastern Atlantic, and Mediterranean [58]. This highly prized shrimp is the target of commercial trawlers fishing off Rhodes.
  • Family PENAEIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
    • Penaeus aztecus Ives, 1891—(A)
      • Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891)—Deval et al. [59]: 1534, Figure 1.
        • Material examined: S7, 1–2 m on sand and pebbles (HN), 20.iii.2015: 1♂ CL 24.1 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from western Atlantic [60], this alien species recently spread in Mediterranean (e.g., [26,59,61,62]). First observed in Chalki Island (Rhodes Island area) in 2014 [26], it is now sold in Greek fish markets (e.g., Rhodes, Athens, and Corfu) and displayed in the HSR Aquarium.
  • Family SERGESTIDAE Dana, 1852
    • Robustosergia robusta (Smith, 1882) *
      • Sergestes robustus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 61, Figure 18a.
      • Robustosergia robusta—Vereshchaka et al. [63]: 22.
        • Material examined: T2, ~570 m in the mouth of Lampanyctus crocodilus (Risso, 1810) (BT), 29.ix.2018: 1♂ CL 15.2 mm.
        • Remarks: A mesopelagic species known from northern Atlantic and Mediterranean [64].
  • Family PASIPHAEIDAE Dana, 1852
    • Pasiphaea multidentata Esmark, 1866
      • Pasiphaea multidentata—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 73, Figures 8a, 10a and 31.
        • Material examined: T3, 600–650 m (BT), 8.xi.2019: 1♂ CL 32.9 mm, 1♀ CL 33.5 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean [58]. Previously known from Rhodes area from a juvenile specimen (31 mm total length) collected by the “Thor” expedition [24].
    • Pasiphaea sivado (Risso, 1816) *
      • Pasiphaea sivado—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 70, Figures 6a and 30a–d.
        • Material examined: T1, ~720 m (BT), 28.ix.2018: 2♀ CL 18.6–19.3 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean [58]. On meso-bathyal grounds Pasiphaea sivado stay close to the bottom at daytime, when it is caught by bottom-trawlers, whereas it migrates in the upper water column at night.
  • Family PALAEMONIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
    • Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846) *—Figure 2A
      • Brachycarpus biunguiculatus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 161, figures 64b and 69a.
        • Material examined: S3, 1 m on sand and rocks with algal cover, during night, 15.ix.2015: 1 specimen (not measured); S12, 0.5–4 m on hard substrate with photophilic algae, 3.xi.2016: 1 specimen (not measured).
        • Remarks: A circumtropical species known from Red Sea, Indian Ocean, eastern Pacific, eastern and western Atlantic, and Mediterranean [58]. This species is considered uncommon in the Mediterranean as it may pass unnoticed due to its behaviour, hiden in crevices or caves during daytime and mostly active at night. According to local divers, the species is present in Rhodes since at least 2010.
    • Palaemon serratus (Pennant, 1777) *
      • Palaemon serratus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 165, Figures 68a–c and 71a; González-Ortegón & Cuesta [65]: 100, Figures 1B–I, 2I and 4C,E.
        • Material examined: S7, 0.5–1 m on hard substrate (HN), 1♀ CL 14.7 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea [58].
    • Periclimenes scriptus (Risso, 1822) *
      • Periclimenes scriptus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 180, figures 3a and 76a–d; Grippa & d’Udekem d’Acoz [66]: 403, Figure 2a and plate 1a.
        • Material examined: S19, 4.5–7 m (ES), 1♀ ov. CL 4 mm.
        • Remarks: Mediterranean endemic [58].
  • Family ALPHEIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
    • Athanas nitescens (Leach, 1814) *—Figure 2B
      • Athanas nitescens—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 137, Figures 3d, 59a and 60.
        • Material examined: S2, 19.5–21 m (ES), 1♀ ov. CL 3.3 mm; S19, 4.5–10 m (ES), 1♂ and 1 unsexed, CL 2–2.1 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
  • Family HIPPOLYTIDAE Spence Bate, 1888
    • Hippolyte inermis Leach, 1816 *—Figure 2C
      • Hippolyte inermis—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 119, Figures 3b, 4d, 5c,d, 49a, 51b,c and 52f; d’Udekem d’Acoz [67]: 27, Figures 11–15.
        • Material examined: S2, 12–14.5 m (ES), 4♀ ov. CL 2.5–2.6 mm; 19.5–21 m (ES), 11♀ CL 2.2–5.3 mm; S5, 15–19.5 m (ES), 2♀ ov. CL 3.1–3.3 mm; 14–17.5 m (ES), 1♂ CL 2.8 mm, 3♀ ov. CL 3–3.5 mm; S19, 4–7.5 m (ES), 20♀ ov. CL 2.6–5.2 mm, 4 unsexed CL 2.2–2.8 mm; 5.5–6 m (ES), 4♀ ov. CL 2.6–4.5 mm.
        • Remarks: A common inhabitant of seagrass meadows, known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
  • Family THORIDAE Kingsley, 1879
    • Eualus cranchii (Leach, 1817) *—Figure 2D
      • Thoralus cranchii—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 125, Figures 5a,b, 49d, 51a and 52c–d.
        • Material examined: S2, 12–14 m (ES), 1♀ ov. CL 2.1 mm; 19.5–21 m (ES), 3♀ ov. CL 1.8–2.1 mm; S5, 14–19.5 m (ES), 2♀ ov. CL 1.9–4.0 mm; S19, 6–8 m (ES), 2♀ ov. CL 2–2.9 mm; 4.5-8 m (ES), 1 unsexed (broken) CL 2 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Marmara Sea [58].
    • Eualus occultus (Lebour, 1936) *
      • Eualus occultus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 127, Figures 4b,c, 51d and 52a,b.
        • Material examined: S19, 6–8 m (ES), 1♀ CL 3.1 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Marmara Sea [58]. Identified on the presence of biarticulate palp in the mandible, lacking in Eualus cranchii (Leach, 1817) [22,68].
  • Family PANDALIDAE Haworth, 1825
    • Plesionika martia (A. Milne-Edwards, 1883) *
      • Plesionika martia—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 105, Figures 36a, 38b, 39a,b and 40a–c; Crosnier & Forest [69]: 212, Figures 63d, 64c and 66a.
        • Material examined: T4, 650–750 m (BT), 19.xi.2019: 6♂ CL 17.1–20.1 mm, 4♀ CL 17.5–20 mm, 4♀ ov. 17.5–20.2 mm.
        • Remarks: A cosmopolitan species, common in the Mediterranean on mesobathyal grounds [58]. It constitutes, together with Plesionika edwardsii (Brandt, 1851), a significant fraction of the commercial bycatch of the bottom trawlers targeting “red shrimps” off Rhodes.
  • Family PROCESSIDAE Ortmann, 1896
    • Processa edulis (Risso, 1816) *
      • Processa edulis edulis—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 153, Figures 65 a–g.
        • Material examined: S2, 12–14.5 m (ES), 1♀ov. CL 6.1 mm; S5, 14–18 m (ES), 1♂ CL 6.1 mm, 1♀ CL 6.9 mm; S19, 6–8 m (ES), 6♂ CL 3.3–5.4 mm, 2♀ CL 5.1 mm, 4♀ ov. CL 4.9–6.4 mm; 4.6–11 m (ES), 1♀ 6.6 mm, 3♀ ov. CL 5.5–7.6 mm.
        • Remarks: A common inhabitant of seagrass meadows, known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58]. In our samples it was found in sympatry with Processa macrophthalma Nouvel & Holthuis, 1957 and Processa acutirostris Nouvel & Holthuis, 1957.
  • Family CRANGONIDAE Haworth, 1825
    • Philocheras fasciatus (Risso, 1816) *
      • Philocheras fasciatus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 195, Figure 82h.
        • Material examined: S2, 19.5–21 m (ES), 1♀ ov. CL 2.6 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
    • Philocheras trispinosus (Hailstone in Hailstone & Westwood, 1835) *—Figure 2E
      • Philocheras trispinosus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 197, Figure 82k.
        • Materialexamined: S2, 0.5 m (HN), 6.xii.2019: 2♂ CL 3.9–4.0 mm, 1♀ ov. CL 4.2 mm.
        • Remarks: Common inhabitant of mediolitoral fine sands, known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
  • Family UPOGEBIIDAE Borradaile, 1903
    • Upogebia deltaura (Leach, 1816) *—Figure 2F
      • Upogebia deltaura—Ngoc-Ho [37]: 508, Figures 26 and 27.
        • Material examined: S19, 6–8 m (ES), 1♂ CL 4.1 mm; 5.5–6 m (ES), 1♀ CL 5.0 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean [58], although some earlier records may refer to the closely related Upogebia mediterranea Noël, 1992, also living in Rhodes [36]. Identified on the basis of the pleura of the first abdominal segment pointed and the third article of the antennal peduncle with a distal spine on the ventral margin (vs pleura with rounded margin and unarmed antennal peduncle in U. mediterranea) [37].
  • Family POLYCHELIDAE Wood-Mason, 1875
    • Polycheles typhlops Heller, 1862 *
      • Polycheles typhlops—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 209, Figure 86b; Galil [70]: 354, Figure 30.
        • Material examined: T3, 600–650 m (BT), 8.xi.2019: 1♂ CL 22.9 mm, 5♀ CL 27.5–47.7 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from bathyal grounds of all the oceans except eastern Pacific [70].
  • Family PAGURIDAE Latreille, 1802
    • Anapagurus breviaculeatus Fenizia, 1937 *
      • Anapagurus breviaculeatus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 257; García-Gomez [71]: 66, Figure 20.
        • Material examined: S19, 9.0–11 m (ES), 1♀ov. SL 1 mm.
        • Remarks: A Mediterranean species, with a single record from Atlantic northern Spain [71]. Holthuis & Gottlieb [72], regarded Anapagurus breviaculeatus as a junior synonym of Anapagurus laevis (Bell, 1845) and reported the material collected off Israel under the latter name. Lewinsohn [12], followed the previous authors and reported A. laevis as the only Anapagurus species collected from Rhodes, although highlighting that ‘trotzdem es den Merkmalen nach auch zu A. breviaculeatus (Fenizia, 1937) gehoren konnte’ [it has the characteristics of A. breviaculeatus]. Both Ingle [73] and García-Gomez [71] remarked that all the eastern Mediterranean specimens previously identified as A. laevis that they could re-examine did not belong to that species and most of them were A. breviaculeatus. Based on the present material, A. breviaculeatus is added to the fauna of Rhodes and the early record of A. laevis is considered a probable misidentification.
    • Pagurus cuanensis Bell, 1845 *—Figure 2G
      • Pagurus cuanensis—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 247, Figures 89d, 90a,n and 91h; Ingle [73]: 129, Figures 101–104.
        • Material examined: S2, 19.5–21 m (ES), 2♂ SL 4.2–6.5 mm; S19, 6–8 m (ES), 1♀ SL 3.8 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean [58].
    • Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791) *
      • Pagurus excavatus—Ingle [74]: 762, Figures 4, 10, 14, 20, 48, 59 and 65; Ingle [73]: 141, Figures 113–116.
        • Material examined: S13, 150–200 m (ST), 30.x.2016: 1♂ SL 9.6 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea [58].
  • Family DORIPPIDAE MacLeay, 1838
    • Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767) *
      • Dorippe lanata—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 312, Figures 2f, 14b, 105a,b and 106d.
      • Medorippe lanata—Manning & Holthuis [75]: 31, figures 4a–h.
        • Material examined: S11, ~100 m, muddy-sandy bottom (ST), 8.xii.2013: 1♀ CL 24.1 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Marmara Sea [58].
  • Family INACHIDAE MacLeay, 1838
    • Macropodia czernjawskii (Brandt, 1880) *
      • Macropodia czerniavskii—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 479, Figures 161a and 162d.
        • Material examined: S5, 15–16.5 m (ES), 1♂ CL 5.7 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
    • Macropodia longirostris (Fabricius, 1775) *
      • Macropodia longirostris—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 481, Figures 161d, 162c and 164a,b.
        • Material examined: S5, 14–17.5 m (ES), 1♂ CL 22.4 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58].
  • Family PIRIMELIDAE Alcock, 1899
    • Pirimela denticulata (Montagu, 1808) *—Figure 2H
      • Pirimela denticulata—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 350, Figures 7a, 11d, 112a and 113a.
        • Material examined: S2, 0.5 m among algae (HN), 23.vii.2019: 1♂ CL 13.3 mm, 1♀ CL 9.5 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea; recorded once from the Suez Canal [58].
  • Family CARCINIDAE MacLeay, 1838
    • Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777) *—Figure 3A
      • Portumnus latipes—Forest [76]: 8, Figures 3, 4 and 6a,b, Pl II Figure 2, Pl. III Figures 2 and 4, Pl IV Figures 4 and 5; Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 357, Figures 1f, 12h, 14c and 116a,b.
        • Material examined: S9, 1 m on sandy bottom with sparse small rocks with algal cover (HN), 14.v.2013: 1♂ CL 27.2 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea [58]. Noteworthy, in a study on the distribution in Greece of Portumnus latipes and its congeneric species Portunus lysianassa (Herbst, 1796), Chartosia et al. [77] did not find any of the two species in the three sites sampled in eastern Rhodes.
  • Family PORTUNIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
    • Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1852—(A)—Figure 3B
      • Carupa tenuipes—Apel & Spiridonov [78]: 172, Figure 4, Pl. 1.
        • Material examined: S7, 8–10 m in the mouth of a Scorpaena species (GN), 3.iv.2012: 1♀ CL 25.2 mm; 25–30 m (TN), 27.iii.2018: 1♂ CL 15.2 mm; S15, 8–10 m (TN), 29.viii.2011: 1♂ CL 12.7 mm; S18, 8–10 m (GN), 11.iv.2011: 1♀ CL 25.1 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea [78], this alien species was first recorded in the Mediterranean off Israel [79] and latter collected off Rhodes [47]. It is now established all around the island on rocky substrates with algal cover.
    • Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867)—(A)
      • Charybdis hellerii—Apel & Spiridonov [78]: 194, Figures 13–15 and 17.
        • Material examined: S10, 20 m on mixed bottom with sand and rocks (GN), 18.iv.2011: 1♀ CL 40.3 mm; S13, 10–15 m on mixed bottom with sand and rocks (TN), 2.xii.2010: 1♀ CL 19.9 mm; S17, 10 m on mixed bottom with sand and rocks (TN), 23.xii.2010: 2♂ CL 38.1–43.5 mm; 10–15 m on mixed bottom with sand and rocks (TN), 30.v.2013: 1♂ CL 44.9 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea [78], this alien species has demonstrated a high invasive capacity, not only in the eastern Mediterranean, where it entered via the Suez Canal, but also in the western Atlantic, where it arrived with ballast waters [80]. First observed in Rhodes in 2004 [48], it is now established all around the island on rocky substrates with algal cover and is displayed in the HSR Aquarium [81].
    • Charybdis (Goniohellenus) longicollis Leene, 1938—(A)
      • Charybdis (Goniohellenus) longicollis—Apel & Spiridonov [78]: 214, Figures 32 and 34.
        • Material examined: S8, 130–187 m (ST), 1♀ CL 19.9 mm; S11, 80 m (ST), iv.2010: 1♀ ov. CL 23.2 mm; S13, 8–10 m (TN), 8.iv.2008: 1♀ CL 21.4 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from western Indian Ocean, including Red Sea [78], this alien species is now abundant off Turkey and off Israel on sandy and muddy bottoms in 30–60 m depths, although it was collected down to 250 m [82]. First observed in Rhodes in 1996 [7], the species is only known so far from scattered specimens collected over a wide bathymetric range.
    • Gonioinfradens giardi (Nobili, 1905)—(A)—Figure 3C
      • Charybdis (Gonioinfradens) giardi—Galil et al. [83]: 512, Figures 2, 3A–D, 4A–D, 5A and 6.
        • Material examined: S7, 8–20 m rocky bottoms with sandy patches (GN), 2♂ CL 25.2–35.3 mm, 1♀ CL 21.2 mm, 1♀ ov. CL 23.8 mm; 16.xi.2012: 2♂ CL 39–49.9 mm; 12.xi.2014: 2♀ CL 19.8–21.3 mm; 4.iv.2017: 4♂ CL 31.3–37.9 mm, 1♀ CL 20 mm; vii.2017: 1♂ CL 40.5 mm; 8.viii.2017: 1♂ CL 35.0 mm; 3.iii.2018: 3♂ CL 28.2–36.9 mm; iv.2018: 2♂ CL 29.9–30.5 mm; S15, 8–20 m rocky bottoms with sandy patches (GN), 29.viii.2011: 1♂ CL 17.4 mm; S4, 1♂ CL 16.2 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from western Arabian Sea, including Persian Gulf and Red Sea, this alien species recently spread in the eastern Mediterranean [83]. First recorded in the Mediterranean from Rhodes in 2010 as Gonioinfradens paucidentatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861) [49], and then from other localities in the eastern Mediterranean [84,85]. More recently, Galil et al. [83], from results of molecular analysis, reinstated the validity of Gonioinfradens giardi, a species previously considered a junior synonym of G. paucidentatus, and reported it from Israel, suggesting that previous Mediterranean records of the latter species should be referred to G. giardi. We keep here present specimens as G. giardi, although this should be confirmed by molecular data as they could not be unequivocably identified on the distinctive morphological characters illustrated in Galil et al. [83].
    • Thalamita poissonii (Audouin, 1826)—(A)—Figure 3D
      • Thalamita poissonii—Apel & Spiridonov [78]: 253, Figures 73–75.
        • Material examined: S1, 2 m (HN), 3.i.2011: 1♀ CL 9.0 mm; S3, 0–1 m (HN), 3.xi.2011: 1♂ CL 20.0 mm; S4, 5 m on rocks (HN), 9.iv.2010: 1♂ CL 13 mm; S7, 3 m (HN), 1.xii.2010: 2♂ CL 20.4-23.8 mm; 3 m (HN), 9.xii.2010: 2♂ CL 24.9–25.2 mm, 1♀ CL 21.0 mm; 1 m (HN), 15.xii.2010: 1♀ ov. CL 20.8 mm; 1 m (HN), 12.xi.2014: 1♂ CL 21.4 mm; 1 m (HN), 10.xi.2017: 1♂ CL 23.5 mm; S11, 100 m (ST), 8.xii.2013: 1♂ CL 11.2 mm, 1♀ CL 7.3 mm; S13, 100 m (ST), 2.xii.2010: 1♂ (not measured); S16, 23 m sandy-rocky bottom with vegetation (HN), 5.x.2009: 1♂ CL 15.1 mm; S18, 5–30 m in the stomach of a Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) (BS), 7.iii.2008: 1 carapace CL 6.3 mm; 5–30 m, sandy-muddy bottom with vegetation (BS), 10.viii.2008: 1♂ CL 19.3 mm; 5–30 m (BS), 22.i.2015: 1♀ CL 9.4 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from western Indian Ocean, including Red Sea [78], this alien species recently spread in the eastern Mediterranean (e.g., [86]). First observed in Rhodes in 2007 [51], it is now locally established, used as bait for fishing rod, and commonly displayed in the HSR Aquarium [81].
  • Family POLYBIIDAE Ortmann, 1893
    • Bathynectes maravigna (Prestandrea, 1839) * Figure 3E,F
      • Bathynectes superbus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 382, Figure 127g.
      • Bathynectes maravigna—Deval & Froglia [87]: 328, Figure 3(left).
        • Material examined: T3, 600–650 m, 8.xi.2019: 1♀ CL 26.5 mm; T4, 650–750 m, 19.xi.2019: 5♂ CL 17.5–42.2 mm, 4♀ CL 18.2–28.0 mm, 1♀ ov. 26.7 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea [58]. Two females examined here (CL 19 mm, the other smashed) were parasitized by Sacculina (see Figure 3F). Øksnebjerg [88], reported one specimen of B. maravigna from eastern Ionian Sea parasitized by Sacculina carcini Thompson, 1836. However, Polybiidae hosting S. carcini usually occur on shallow grounds in depths of less than 50 m, whereas B. maravigna is restricted to bathyal grounds, from 300 to 1000 m. Moreover, the present externae (4.6 and 4.8 mm in size) have the mantle opening placed at the top of a rather long papilla, less developed in S. carcini [88] (front-cover), and thus we suspect that these specimens do not belong to S. carcini.
    • Liocarcinus bolivari (Zariquiey Álvarez, 1948) *—Figure 3G,H
      • Macropipus bolivari—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 375, Figure 127a,b.
        • Material examined: S5, 14–17.5 m (ES), 1♂ CL 8.6 mm; S8, 130–187 m (ST), 2♂ CL 20.6–21.8 mm, 1♀ CL 17.7 mm; S11, 100 m (ST), 15.v.2010: 2♂ CL 15.6–19.6 mm, 1♀ CL 18.7 mm; 150 m (ST), 1♀ CL 17 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from western and south-central Mediterranean, with single records from the Gulf of Cadiz (outside Gibraltar) and northern Adriatic [58]. Here, it is recorded for the first time in the eastern Mediterranean. Liocarcinus bolivari is closely related to Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758) and Liocarcinus vernalis (Risso, 1827). In addition to the morphological differences that allow separation of long-time preserved specimens [22], L. bolivari can be recognized at a glance in the field for the presence of dark bands on articles of walking legs (Figure 3H), versus a uniform colour in L. depurator and L. vernalis, and the distal part of dactylus of the fifth pereopod, blue-violet only in L. bolivari and L. depurator.
  • Family GERYONIDAE Colosi, 1923
    • Geryon longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1882 *
      • Geryon longipes—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 388, Figure 135a.
        • Material examined: T4, 650–750 m (BT), 19.xi.2019: 1♀ CL 25.5 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean [58].
  • Family XANTHIDAE MacLeay, 1838
    • Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830)—(A)
      • Atergatis roseus—Serène [89]: 147, Figure 86, Pl. XXIA.
        • Material examined: S12, 8–15 m (TN), 2.v.2010: 1♂ CL 61.5 mm; S18, 8–15 m (TN), 20.xi.2015: 1♀ CL 49.3 mm.
        • Remarks: Native from Indo-West Pacific, including Red Sea [89], this alien species recently spread in the eastern Mediterranean (e.g., [90]). First observed in Rhodes in 2009 [51], it is now established all around the island on rocky substrates and it is regularly displayed in the HSR Aquarium since 2009 [81].
  • Family GRAPSIDAE MacLeay, 1838
    • Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850) *
      • Pachygrapsus transversus—Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 425, Figure 140c; Poupin et al. [91]: 44 (partim), Figures 13a–e, 14l and 15l.
        • Material examined: S1, 1 m on hard substrate with algae (HN), 10.iv.2014: 1♀ CL 7.4 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from western and eastern Atlantic, including many Islands groups, and Mediterranean [92]. Recorded only once in the Aegean Sea, at Karpathos Island [93]. The specimen herein reported was collected in a local marina, suggesting that the intense maritime traffic in the area may have played a role in this finding.
    • Planes minutus (Linnaeus, 1758)
      • Planes minutus—Chace [94]: 81, Figures 1a and 2a,d,g–l; Zariquiey Álvarez [22]: 427, Figure 143e.
        • Material examined: S6, near a stranded male Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) (carapace curved length 81 cm), 4.iii.2014: 1♂ CL 15.2 mm; S20, tidal rocky substrate (HN), 3.xi.2014: 1♂ CL 9.6 mm.
        • Remarks: Known from eastern and western Atlantic and Mediterranean [58]. The species is usually associated with floatsam (natural or artificial) and sea turtles in the pelagic realm [95] and was first collected in the Aegean in 2010 at Rhodes [14]. The present findings represent the second and third records of the species in the Aegean Sea.
  • Family OCYPODIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
    • Ocypode cursor (Linnaeus, 1758)
      • Ocypode cursor—Holthuis & Gottlieb [72]: 99, plate 3, Figure 14; Sakai & Türkay [96]: 702, Figures 2B,13 and 35.
        • Material examined: S14, on a sandy beach during night (HN), 14.ix.2016: 9♂ CL 14.4–27.1 mm, 1♀ CL 28.8 mm (specimens released after measurements and photos).
        • Remarks: Known from the western coasts of Africa and eastern and central Mediterranean [56,97]. As consequence of global warming, the species is currently expanding westwards to the central Mediterranean from the Levant Sea, which may have acted as refugium during the last glacial period [57]. Kinzelbach [56] reported Ocypode cursor from southern Aegean (including Rhodes) based on a specimen displayed at the HSR museum and another one from Karpathos Island.

4. Discussion

To date, a number of approximate 400 decapods have been listed in the Mediterranean Sea [98], of which about 24% are aliens [99], and less than 300 species are known from the Hellenic Aegean Sea (Authors’ unpublished data), of which 25 are aliens [100]. In the present work, 28 species of decapods are reported for the first time for the Rhodes Island area, including eight deep-water species detected from material collected by “red-shrimp” bottom trawlers, six species discovered during snorkeling in shallow waters, twelve species obtained from night sampling with epibenthic sledge on Posidonia oceanica meadows, and two more species collected with shrimp traps on the continental shelf. The number of marine decapod species recorded for Rhodes (148) accounts now for about 50% of the Hellenic Aegean decapod fauna.
All the new records are native species with a wide distribution in the Mediterranean, with the exception of Liocarcinus bolivari, rarely recorded in the West and Central Mediterranean and here documented for the first time in the eastern Mediterranean, and Pachygrapsus transversus, although for the latter species also a human-mediated range extension may be involved. Among species already recorded from Rhodes, but only from a limited number of specimens, Ocypode cursor needs a mention, being the only decapod species listed in the Annex II (strictly protected fauna species) of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Berne Convention). The uncontrolled development of mass tourism in the last decades and the unlimited use of the beaches [101] requires a monitoring of the local population of this crab in beaches heavily impacted by tourism activities, such as those of Prasonisi and Tsampika.
It is also worth a mention that when the coastal waters of the island were first investigated (about 50 years ago) for the presence of species of Indo-Pacific origin, no alien decapods were collected [12]. Nowaday twenty-two of the 148 species reported in the checklist are aliens and there is evidence that biological pollution is locally increasing at a steady rate, with several species becoming established, especially in the last decade. Also records of alien decapods in stomach contents of both native and alien fishes suggest they became a component of the local food web with effects on the whole biota. The local ratio alien vs native decapod species of 0.17 appears slightly higher than the 0.13 calculated for bony fishes [102]. This may be partially explained by the fact that fishes are not only more easily spotted due to their larger sizes and commercial value, but even more easily identified by various sea lovers, including non-professional ones like scuba divers and citizen scientists.
Finally, improving knowledge of diversity of the major marine groups, as also requested by the MSFD Annex I 2008/56/EC, provide data useful as descriptor of the environmental status of regions highly affected by the influx of alien species and contribute in monitoring possible changes in the diversity of marine biota [103]. Notwithstanding past and present research efforts, the list of the decapod biota of the Rhodes Island area is presumably far from being complete. Future surveys, carried out with as many professional fishing gears and scientific samplers as possible, and in different habitats, from shallow to deep waters, including areas all around the island, will presumably reveal the presence of many unrecorded native species and additional Lessepsian immigrants.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, G.K., F.C., M.C.-F. and C.F.; methodology, G.K., F.C., M.C.-F. and C.F.; investigation, G.K., F.C., M.C.-F. and C.F.; data curation, G.K., F.C., M.C.-F. and C.F.; writing—original draft preparation, G.K. and M.C.-F.; writing—review and editing, G.K., F.C., M.C.-F. and C.F. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.


The unpublished material reported here was obtained thanks to the COST Action TD1209-ALIEN Challenge carried out in Rhodes in 2014, H. Hatzialexiou and M. Savviou who helped during snorkelling activities, M. Limperis, S. Vagianos, and I. Karaosman, respectively captains of the fishing vessels “Captain Manolis”, “Saratoga”, and “Taxiarchis”, who, together with their crews, supported fieldwork, F. Fiorentino (CNR-IRBIM, Mazara del Vallo, Italy) who supplied the material from the Italian shrimp trawlers fishing off Rhodes, and the Port Authority of Rhodes. Vassiliki Loukaidi from HCMR contributed in the GIS map. We are grateful to all of them.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Study area with the location of Rhodes Island within Greece (red square). Sampling sites (S1–S20) and trawling grounds (T1–T4) as reported in Table 1.
Figure 1. Study area with the location of Rhodes Island within Greece (red square). Sampling sites (S1–S20) and trawling grounds (T1–T4) as reported in Table 1.
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Figure 2. Decapods from Rhodes area, in colours. (A) Brachycarpus biunguiculatus, not measured; (B) Athanas nitescens, CL 3.3 mm; (C) Hippolyte inermis, CL 2.6 mm; (D) Eualus cranchii, CL 2.1 mm; (E) Philocheras trispinosus, CL 4.0 mm; (F) Upogebia deltaura, CL 5.0 mm; (G) Pagurus cuanensis, SL 4.2 mm; (H) Pirimela denticulata, CL 13.3 mm.
Figure 2. Decapods from Rhodes area, in colours. (A) Brachycarpus biunguiculatus, not measured; (B) Athanas nitescens, CL 3.3 mm; (C) Hippolyte inermis, CL 2.6 mm; (D) Eualus cranchii, CL 2.1 mm; (E) Philocheras trispinosus, CL 4.0 mm; (F) Upogebia deltaura, CL 5.0 mm; (G) Pagurus cuanensis, SL 4.2 mm; (H) Pirimela denticulata, CL 13.3 mm.
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Figure 3. Decapods from Rhodes area, in colours. (A) Portumnus latipes, CL 27.2 mm; (B) Carupa tenuipes, CL 15.2 mm; (C) Gonioinfradens giardi, CL 36.9 mm; (D) Thalamita poissonii, CL 21.4 mm. (E) Bathynectes maravigna, CL 42.2 mm; (F) Bathynectes maravigna, CL 19 mm, parasitized by Sacculina sp.; (G) Liocarcinus bolivari, CL 20.6 mm; (H) Liocarcinus bolivari, CL 8.6 mm, juvenile.
Figure 3. Decapods from Rhodes area, in colours. (A) Portumnus latipes, CL 27.2 mm; (B) Carupa tenuipes, CL 15.2 mm; (C) Gonioinfradens giardi, CL 36.9 mm; (D) Thalamita poissonii, CL 21.4 mm. (E) Bathynectes maravigna, CL 42.2 mm; (F) Bathynectes maravigna, CL 19 mm, parasitized by Sacculina sp.; (G) Liocarcinus bolivari, CL 20.6 mm; (H) Liocarcinus bolivari, CL 8.6 mm, juvenile.
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Table 1. Sampling sites and trawling grounds shown in Figure 1, with coordinates (rounded to degrees and minutes) and depth range (in meters).
Table 1. Sampling sites and trawling grounds shown in Figure 1, with coordinates (rounded to degrees and minutes) and depth range (in meters).
SitesCoordinatesDepth Range
S1Mandraki Marina36°26′ N–28°14′ E1–2
S2Zefiros36°25′ N–28°14′ E0.5–21
S3Karakonero36°25′ N–28°14′ E0–1
S4Aghia Marina36°24′ N–28°13′ E5–20
S5Kalithea36°24′ N–28°14′ E14–20
S6Faliraki beach36°22′ N–28°13′ ETidal
S7Faliraki36°20′ N–28°13′ E0.5–30
S8Afandou Bay36°18′ N–28°12′ E130–187
S9Kolimbia36°15′ N–28°10′ E1
S10Stegna36°11′ N–28°08′ E20
S11Haraki36°09′ N–28°06′ E80–150
S12Lindos Bay36°05′ N–28°05′ E0.5–15
S13Pefki36°04′ N–28°02′ E8–20
S14Aghios Georgios35°57′ N–27°53′ E0
S15Kalavarda36°21′ N–27°56′ E8–20
S16Fanes36°22′ N–27°58′ E23
S17Soroni36°22′ N–27°59′ E10–15
S18Ixia36°26′ N–28°10′ E5–30
S19Kritika36°26′ N–28°12′ E4–11
S20Chalki Island36°12′ N–27°33′ ETidal
T1NW of Rhodes36°27′ N–27°38′ E~720
T2NW of Rhodes36°25′ N–27°45′ E~570
T3NE of Rhodes36°30′ N–28°26′ E600–650
T4SW of Rhodes35°55′ N–27°35′ E650–750
Table 2. Updated checklist (December 2019) of the order Decapoda Latreille, 1802 recorded from the Rhodes Island area (Greece, eastern Mediterranean) with references to first records. Alien species are marked with an (A) after the scientific name.
Table 2. Updated checklist (December 2019) of the order Decapoda Latreille, 1802 recorded from the Rhodes Island area (Greece, eastern Mediterranean) with references to first records. Alien species are marked with an (A) after the scientific name.
Suborder DENDROBRANCHIATA Spence Bate, 1888
Family ARISTEIDAE Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
  Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827)present study
  Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816)present study
Family BENTHESICYMIDAE Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
  Gennadas elegans (Smith, 1882)[24]
Family PENAEIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
  Metapenaeopsis aegyptia Galil & Golani, 1990 (A)[25]
  Metapenaeopsis mogiensis consobrina (Nobili, 1904) (A)[25]
  Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846)[13]
  Penaeus aztecus Ives, 1891 (A)[26]
  Penaeus hathor (Burkenroad, 1959) (A)[27]
  Penaeus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775)[28] as Penaeus caramote
  Penaeus pulchricaudatus Stebbing, 1914 (A)[29] as Penaeus japonicus
  Trachysalambria palaestinensis (Steinitz, 1932) (A)[25] as Trachypenaeus curvirostris
Family SICYONIIDAE Ortmann, 1898
  Sicyonia carinata (Brünnich, 1768)[13]
Family SOLENOCERIDAE Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
  Solenocera membranacea (Risso, 1816)[13]
Family SERGESTIDAE Dana, 1852
  Robustosergia robusta (Smith, 1882)present study
Family LUCIFERIDAE De Haan, 1849
  Lucifer typus H. Milne Edwards, 1837[30] as Lucifer reynaudii
Suborder PLEOCYEMATA Burkenroad, 1963
Family STENOPODIDAE Claus, 1872
  Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827[14]
Family PASIPHAEIDAE Dana, 1852
  Pasiphaea multidentata Esmark, 1866[24]
  Pasiphaea sivado (Risso, 1816)present study
Family ACANTHEPHYRIDAE Spence Bate, 1888
  Acanthephyra pelagica (Risso, 1816)[24] as Acanthephyra multispina
  Acanthephyra eximia Smith, 1884[31]
Family PALAEMONIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
  Gnathophyllum elegans (Risso, 1816)[14]
  Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846)present study
  Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837[32] as Leander squilla var. elegans
  Palaemon serratus (Pennant, 1777)present study
  Palaemon xiphias Risso, 1816[12]
  Periclimenes scriptus (Risso, 1822)present study
  Pontonia pinnophylax (Otto, 1821)[32] as Pontonia custos
Family ALPHEIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
  Alpheus dentipes Guérin, 1832[12]
  Athanas nitescens (Leach, 1814)present study
  Synalpheus gambarelloides (Nardo, 1847)[32] as Synalpheus laevimanus
Family HIPPOLYTIDAE Spence Bate, 1888
  Hippolyte inermis Leach, 1816present study
Family THORIDAE Kingsley, 1879
  Eualus cranchii (Leach, 1817)present study
  Eualus occultus (Lebour, 1936)present study
Family LYSMATIDAE Dana, 1852
  Lysmata seticaudata (Risso, 1816)[14]
Family PROCESSIDAE Ortmann, 1896
  Processa acutirostris Nouvel & Holthuis, 1957[13]
  Processa edulis (Risso, 1816)present study
  Processa macrophthalma Nouvel & Holthuis, 1957[13]
Family PANDALIDAE Haworth, 1825
  Plesionika edwardsii (Brandt, 1851)[33]
  Plesionika martia (A. Milne-Edwards, 1883)present study
  Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787)[33,34]
Family CRANGONIDAE Haworth, 1825
  Aegaeon cataphractus (Olivi, 1792)[13]
  Philocheras fasciatus (Risso, 1816)present study
  Philocheras trispinosus (Hailstone, 1853)present study
Family CALLIANASSIDAE Dana, 1852
  Callianassa subterranea (Montagu, 1808)[35]
  Gourretia denticulata (Lutze, 1937)[35] as Gourretia serrata
  Pestarella candida (Olivi, 1792)[12] as Callianassa pestai
  Pestarella tyrrhena (Petagna, 1792)[13] as Callianassa tyrrhena
Family UPOGEBIIDAE Borradaile, 1903
  Gebiacantha talismani (Bouvier, 1915)[35] as Upogebia talismani
  Upogebia deltaura (Leach, 1816)present study
  Upogebia mediterranea Noël, 1992[36,37]
  Upogebia pusilla (Petagna, 1792)[13]
  Upogebia stellata (Montagu, 1808)[35]
  Upogebia tipica (Nardo, 1869)[12]
Family POLYCHELIDAE Wood-Mason, 1875
  Polycheles typhlops Heller, 1862present study
Family PALINURIDAE Latreille, 1802
  Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787)[28] as Palinurus vulgaris
Family SCYLLARIDAE Latreille, 1825
  Scyllarides latus (Latreille, 1803)[28]
  Scyllarus arctus (Linnaeus, 1758)[38] as Scyllarus arctos
  Scyllarus pygmaeus (Bate, 1888)[12]
Family DIOGENIDAE Ortmann, 1892
  Calcinus tubularis (Linnaeus, 1767)[12] as Calcinus ornatus
  Clibanarius erythropus (Latreille, 1818)[32] as Clibanarius misanthropus
  Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796)[38] as Pagurus striatus
  Dardanus calidus (Risso, 1827)[12] as Dardanus callidus
  Diogenes pugilator (Roux, 1829)[12]
  Paguristes eremita (Linnaeus, 1767)[32] as Paguristes oculatus
Family PAGURIDAE Latreille, 1802
  Anapagurus bicorniger A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier,1892[14]
  Anapagurus breviaculeatus Fenizia, 1937[12] as Anapagurus laevis
  Anapagurus petiti Dechancé & Forest, 1962[14]
  Cestopagurus timidus (Roux, 1830)[12] as Catapaguroides timidus
  Pagurus anachoretus Risso, 1827[12]
  Pagurus cuanensis Bell, 1845present study
  Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791)present study
  Pagurus prideaux Leach, 1815[12] as Pagurus prideauxi
Family GALATHEIDAE Samouelle, 1819
  Galathea intermedia Lilljeborg, 1851[39]
  Galathea machadoi Barrois, 1888[40]
  Galathea squamifera Leach, 1814[32]
  Galathea strigosa (Linnaeus, 1761)[38]
Family MUNIDIDAE Ahyong, Baba, Macpherson & Poore, 2010
  Munida curvimana A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1894[14]
Family PORCELLANIDAE Haworth, 1825
  Pisidia bluteli (Risso, 1816)[12]
  Porcellana platycheles (Pennant, 1777)[12]
Family ALBUNEIDAE Stimpson, 1858
  Albunea carabus (Linnaeus, 1758)[15]
Family DROMIIDAE De Haan, 1833
  Dromia personata (Linnaeus, 1758)[38] as Dromia vulgaris
Family HOMOLIDAE De Haan, 1839
  Homola barbata (Fabricius, 1793)[13]
Family LATREILLIIDAE Stimpson, 1858
  Latreillia elegans Roux, 1830[13]
Family ETHUSIDAE Guinot, 1977
  Ethusa mascarone (Herbst, 1785)[13]
Family DORIPPIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767)present study
Family CALAPPIDAE De Haan, 1833
  Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]
Family MATUTIDAE De Haan, 1835
  Matuta victor (Fabricius, 1781) (A)[41]
Family LEUCOSIIDAE Samouelle, 1819
  Coleusia signata (Paulson, 1875) (A)[42] as Leucosia signata
  Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758)[13]
  Ixa monodi Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1956 (A)[7]
  Myra subgranulata Kossmann, 1877 (A)[43]
Family INACHIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Inachus communissimus Rizza, 1839[13]
  Inachus dorsettensis (Pennant, 1777)[13]
  Inachus leptochirus Leach, 1817[13]
  Inachus thoracicus Roux, 1830[13]
  Macropodia czernjawskii (Brandt, 1880)present study
  Macropodia longirostris (Fabricius, 1775)present study
  Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761)[39]
Family MAJIDAE Samouelle, 1819
  Eurynome aspera (Pennant, 1777)[39]
  Maja crispata Risso, 1827[44] as Maja verrucosa
  Maja squinado (Herbst, 1788)[38]
  Neomaja goltziana (d’Oliveira, 1888)[14] as Maja goltziana
Family EPIALTIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Acanthonyx lunulatus (Risso, 1816)[32]
  Herbstia condyliata (Fabricius, 1787)[43]
  Lissa chiragra (Fabricius, 1775)[14]
  Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803)[13]
  Pisa hirticornis (Herbst, 1804)[12] as Pisa corallina
  Pisa muscosa (Linnaeus, 1758)[13]
  Pisa tetraodon (Pennant, 1777)[45]
Family PARTHENOPIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Derilambrus angulifrons (Latreille, 1825)[14]
  Spinolambrus macrochelos (Herbst, 1790)[14]
Family PIRIMELIDAE Alcock, 1899
  Pirimela denticulata (Montagu, 1808)present study
Family CARCINIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777)present study
Family PORTUNIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
  Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (A)[43,46]
  Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1852 (A)[47]
  Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867) (A)[48]
  Charybdis (Goniohellenus) longicollis Leene, 1938 (A)[7]
  Gonioinfradens giardi (Nobili, 1905) (A)[49] as Gonioinfradens paucidentatus
  Portunus hastatus (Linnaeus, 1767)[38] as Neptunus hastatus
  Portunus segnis (Forskål, 1775) (A)[50] as Portunus pelagicus
  Thalamita poissonii (Audouin, 1826) (A)[51]
Family POLYBIIDAE Ortmann, 1893
  Bathynectes maravigna (Prestandrea, 1839)present study
  Liocarcinus bolivari (Zariquiey Álvarez, 1948)present study
  Liocarcinus corrugatus (Pennant, 1777)[38] as Portunus corrugatus
  Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758)[38] as Portunus depurator
  Liocarcinus navigator (Herbst, 1794)[32] as Portunus arcuatus
  Liocarcinus zariquieyi (Gordon, 1968)[12] as Macropipus zariquieyi
Family GERYONIDAE Colosi, 1923
  Chaceon mediterraneus Manning & Holthuis, 1989[52]
  Geryon longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1882present study
Family PROGERYONIDAE Števčić, 2005
  Paragalene longicrura (Nardo, 1869)[14]
Family GONEPLACIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Goneplax rhomboides (Linnaeus, 1758)[39]
Family ERIPHIIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Eriphia verrucosa (Forskål, 1775)[44] as Eriphia spinifrons
Family XANTHIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Actaeodes tomentosus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) (A)[53]
  Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830) (A)[51]
  Monodaeus guinotae Forest, 1976[13]
  Paractaea monodi Guinot, 1969[14]
  Xanthias lamarckii (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) (A)[16]
  Xantho granulicarpus Forest in Drach & Forest,1953[12]
  Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792)[32]
Family PILUMNIDAE Samouelle, 1819
  Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761)[32]
  Pilumnus villosissimus (Rafinesque, 1814)[14]
Family GRAPSIDAE MacLeay, 1838
  Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787)[32]
  Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850)present study
  Planes minutus (Linnaeus, 1758)[14]
Family PERCNIDAE Števčić, 2005
  Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (A)[54]
  Macrophthalmus indicus Davie, 2012 (A)[55] as Macrophthalmus graeffei
Family OCYPODIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
  Ocypode cursor (Linnaeus, 1758)[56,57]
Family PALICIDAE Bouvier, 1898
  Palicus caronii (Roux, 1828)[13]

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kondylatos, G.; Crocetta, F.; Corsini-Foka, M.; Froglia, C. Crustacea Decapoda from the Rhodes Island Area (Eastern Mediterranean): New Records and an Updated Checklist. Diversity 2020, 12, 246.

AMA Style

Kondylatos G, Crocetta F, Corsini-Foka M, Froglia C. Crustacea Decapoda from the Rhodes Island Area (Eastern Mediterranean): New Records and an Updated Checklist. Diversity. 2020; 12(6):246.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kondylatos, Gerasimos, Fabio Crocetta, Maria Corsini-Foka, and Carlo Froglia. 2020. "Crustacea Decapoda from the Rhodes Island Area (Eastern Mediterranean): New Records and an Updated Checklist" Diversity 12, no. 6: 246.

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