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Individual Morphology and Habitat Structure Alter Social Interactions in a Range-Shifting Species

1
Marine Science Program, School of the Earth, Ocean, and Environment, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
2
Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2019, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11010006
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 31 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Ecosystem Engineers in the World Coasts and Oceans)
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Abstract

Ecosystem engineers that serve as foundation species shape the ecology and behavior of the species which depend on them. As species shift their geographic ranges into ecosystems they have not previously inhabited, it is important to understand how interactions with novel foundation species alter their behavior. By employing behavioral assays and morphological analyses, we examined how individual morphology and foundation species structure impact the ritualistic aggression behavior of the range shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii between its historic and colonized habitats. Structure of the foundation species of the colonized salt marsh ecosystem increases the incidence and risk of this behavior over the historic mangrove habitat, potentially negating benefits of ritualizing aggression. Further, docks within the salt marsh, which are structurally analogous to mangroves, mitigate some, but not all, of the increased costs of performing ritualized aggression. Crabs in the salt marsh also had relatively larger claws than conspecifics from the dock and mangrove habitats, which has implications for the risk and outcomes of ritualized interactions. These changes to morphology and behavior highlight the impacts that foundation species structure can have on the morphology, ecology, and behavior of organisms and the importance of studying these impacts in range shifting species. View Full-Text
Keywords: agonistic behavior; analogous habitat; Aratus pisonii; colonized ecosystem; engineered structures; mangrove; physical ecosystem engineers; range shift; salt marsh agonistic behavior; analogous habitat; Aratus pisonii; colonized ecosystem; engineered structures; mangrove; physical ecosystem engineers; range shift; salt marsh
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Cannizzo, Z.J.; Nix, S.K.; Whaling, I.C.; Griffen, B.D. Individual Morphology and Habitat Structure Alter Social Interactions in a Range-Shifting Species. Diversity 2019, 11, 6.

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