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Review

Multiple Sclerosis: From the Application of Oligoclonal Bands to Novel Potential Biomarkers

by
Grazia Maglio
1,†,
Marina D’Agostino
1,†,
Francesco Pio Caronte
1,
Luciano Pezone
1,
Amelia Casamassimi
2,*,
Monica Rienzo
3,
Erika Di Zazzo
4,
Carmela Nappo
1,
Nicola Medici
1,2,
Anna Maria Molinari
1,2 and
Ciro Abbondanza
1,2,*
1
Unit of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, A.O.U. University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
4
Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V. Tiberio”, University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(10), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105412
Submission received: 10 April 2024 / Revised: 10 May 2024 / Accepted: 14 May 2024 / Published: 15 May 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuroimmunology)

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system with a high heterogeneity among patients. In the clinical setting, one of the main challenges is a proper and early diagnosis for the prediction of disease activity. Current diagnosis is based on the integration of clinical, imaging, and laboratory results, with the latter based on the presence of intrathecal IgG oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid whose detection via isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting represents the gold standard. Intrathecal synthesis can also be evidenced by the measurement of kappa free light chains in the cerebrospinal fluid, which has reached similar diagnostic accuracy compared to that of oligoclonal bands in the identification of patients with multiple sclerosis; moreover, recent studies have also highlighted its value for early disease activity prediction. This strategy has significant advantages as compared to using oligoclonal band detection, even though some issues remain open. Here, we discuss the current methods applied for cerebrospinal fluid analysis to achieve the most accurate diagnosis and for follow-up and prognosis evaluation. In addition, we describe new promising biomarkers, currently under investigation, that could contribute both to a better diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and to its monitoring of the therapeutic treatment response.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; cerebrospinal fluid; kappa free light chains; novel biomarkers multiple sclerosis; cerebrospinal fluid; kappa free light chains; novel biomarkers

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Maglio, G.; D’Agostino, M.; Caronte, F.P.; Pezone, L.; Casamassimi, A.; Rienzo, M.; Di Zazzo, E.; Nappo, C.; Medici, N.; Molinari, A.M.; et al. Multiple Sclerosis: From the Application of Oligoclonal Bands to Novel Potential Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25, 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105412

AMA Style

Maglio G, D’Agostino M, Caronte FP, Pezone L, Casamassimi A, Rienzo M, Di Zazzo E, Nappo C, Medici N, Molinari AM, et al. Multiple Sclerosis: From the Application of Oligoclonal Bands to Novel Potential Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2024; 25(10):5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maglio, Grazia, Marina D’Agostino, Francesco Pio Caronte, Luciano Pezone, Amelia Casamassimi, Monica Rienzo, Erika Di Zazzo, Carmela Nappo, Nicola Medici, Anna Maria Molinari, and et al. 2024. "Multiple Sclerosis: From the Application of Oligoclonal Bands to Novel Potential Biomarkers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 25, no. 10: 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105412

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