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Review

Enrofloxacin—The Ruthless Killer of Eukaryotic Cells or the Last Hope in the Fight against Bacterial Infections?

1
Laboratory of Phage Therapy, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kładki 24, 80-822 Gdansk, Poland
2
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claudiu T. Supuran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073648
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 22 March 2022 / Accepted: 24 March 2022 / Published: 26 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection 21st Anniversary of IJMS: Advances in Biochemistry)
Enrofloxacin is a compound that originates from a group of fluoroquinolones that is widely used in veterinary medicine as an antibacterial agent (this antibiotic is not approved for use as a drug in humans). It reveals strong antibiotic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mainly due to the inhibition of bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymatic actions. The high efficacy of this molecule has been demonstrated in the treatment of various animals on farms and other locations. However, the use of enrofloxacin causes severe adverse effects, including skeletal, reproductive, immune, and digestive disorders. In this review article, we present in detail and discuss the advantageous and disadvantageous properties of enrofloxacin, showing the benefits and risks of the use of this compound in veterinary medicine. Animal health and the environmental effects of this stable antibiotic (with half-life as long as 3–9 years in various natural environments) are analyzed, as are the interesting properties of this molecule that are expressed when present in complexes with metals. Recommendations for further research on enrofloxacin are also proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: enrofloxacin; antibiotic; safety; efficacy; adverse effects; toxicity enrofloxacin; antibiotic; safety; efficacy; adverse effects; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grabowski, Ł.; Gaffke, L.; Pierzynowska, K.; Cyske, Z.; Choszcz, M.; Węgrzyn, G.; Węgrzyn, A. Enrofloxacin—The Ruthless Killer of Eukaryotic Cells or the Last Hope in the Fight against Bacterial Infections? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073648

AMA Style

Grabowski Ł, Gaffke L, Pierzynowska K, Cyske Z, Choszcz M, Węgrzyn G, Węgrzyn A. Enrofloxacin—The Ruthless Killer of Eukaryotic Cells or the Last Hope in the Fight against Bacterial Infections? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(7):3648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073648

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grabowski, Łukasz, Lidia Gaffke, Karolina Pierzynowska, Zuzanna Cyske, Marta Choszcz, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, and Alicja Węgrzyn. 2022. "Enrofloxacin—The Ruthless Killer of Eukaryotic Cells or the Last Hope in the Fight against Bacterial Infections?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 7: 3648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073648

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