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Article

Effect of Air Exposure-Induced Hypoxia on Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission Enzymes in Ganglia of the Scallop Azumapecten farreri

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 69004 Vladivostok, Russia
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Academic Editor: Antonio Pisani
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042027
Received: 8 December 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 9 February 2022 / Published: 11 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Neurobiology)
The nervous system expresses neuromolecules that play a crucial role in regulating physiological processes. Neuromolecule synthesis can be regulated by oxygen-dependent enzymes. Bivalves are a convenient model for studying air exposure-induced hypoxia. Here, we studied the effects of hypoxia on the expression and dynamics of neurotransmitters, and on neurotransmitter enzyme distribution, in the central nervous system (CNS) of the scallop Azumapecten farreri. We analyzed the expression of the neurotransmitters FMRFamide and serotonin (5-HT) and the choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) and universal NO-synthase (uNOS) enzymes during air exposure-induced hypoxia. We found that, in early-stage hypoxia, total serotonin content decreased in some CNS regions but increased in others. CHAT-lir cell numbers increased in all ganglia after hypoxia; CHAT probably appears de novo in accessory ganglia. Short-term hypoxia caused increased uNOS-lir cell numbers, while long-term exposure led to a reduction in their number. Thus, hypoxia weakly influences the number of FMRFamide-lir neurons in the visceral ganglion and does not affect peptide expression in the pedal ganglion. Ultimately, we found that the localization and level of synthesis of neuromolecules, and the numbers of cells expressing these molecules, vary in the scallop CNS during hypoxia exposure. This indicates their possible involvement in hypoxia resistance mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress; neurotransmitters; biogenic amines; bivalves; oxygen stress; neurotransmitters; biogenic amines; bivalves; oxygen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kotsyuba, E.; Dyachuk, V. Effect of Air Exposure-Induced Hypoxia on Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission Enzymes in Ganglia of the Scallop Azumapecten farreri. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042027

AMA Style

Kotsyuba E, Dyachuk V. Effect of Air Exposure-Induced Hypoxia on Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission Enzymes in Ganglia of the Scallop Azumapecten farreri. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(4):2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kotsyuba, Elena, and Vyacheslav Dyachuk. 2022. "Effect of Air Exposure-Induced Hypoxia on Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission Enzymes in Ganglia of the Scallop Azumapecten farreri" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 4: 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042027

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