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Article

Severe Natural Outbreak of Cryptocaryon irritans in Gilthead Seabream Produces Leukocyte Mobilization and Innate Immunity at the Gill Tissue

1
Oceanographic Center of Murcia, Spanish Institute of Oceanography, Spanish National Research Council (IEO-CSIC), Carretera de la Azohía s/n. Puerto de Mazarrón, 30860 Murcia, Spain
2
Immunobiology for Aquaculture Group, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshiro Kobayashi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020937
Received: 15 December 2021 / Revised: 11 January 2022 / Accepted: 13 January 2022 / Published: 15 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides and Immunology)
The protozoan parasite Cryptocaryon irritans causes marine white spot disease in a wide range of fish hosts, including gilthead seabream, a very sensitive species with great economic importance in the Mediterranean area. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the immunity of gilthead seabream after a severe natural outbreak of C. irritans. Morphological alterations and immune cell appearance in the gills were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The expression of several immune-related genes in the gills and head kidney were studied by qPCR, including inflammatory and immune cell markers, antimicrobial peptides (AMP), and cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) molecules. Serum humoral innate immune activities were also assayed. Fish mortality reached 100% 8 days after the appearance of the C. irritans episode. Gill filaments were engrossed and packed without any space between filaments and included parasites and large numbers of undifferentiated and immune cells, namely acidophilic granulocytes. Our data suggest leukocyte mobilization from the head kidney, while the gills show the up-regulated transcription of inflammatory, AMPs, and CMC-related molecules. Meanwhile, only serum bactericidal activity was increased upon infection. A potent local innate immune response in the gills, probably orchestrated by AMPs and CMC, is triggered by a severe natural outbreak of C. irritans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptocaryon irritans; Sparus aurata; innate immunity; AMPs; cell-mediated cytotoxicity; aquaculture Cryptocaryon irritans; Sparus aurata; innate immunity; AMPs; cell-mediated cytotoxicity; aquaculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cervera, L.; González-Fernández, C.; Arizcun, M.; Cuesta, A.; Chaves-Pozo, E. Severe Natural Outbreak of Cryptocaryon irritans in Gilthead Seabream Produces Leukocyte Mobilization and Innate Immunity at the Gill Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020937

AMA Style

Cervera L, González-Fernández C, Arizcun M, Cuesta A, Chaves-Pozo E. Severe Natural Outbreak of Cryptocaryon irritans in Gilthead Seabream Produces Leukocyte Mobilization and Innate Immunity at the Gill Tissue. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(2):937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020937

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cervera, Laura, Carmen González-Fernández, Marta Arizcun, Alberto Cuesta, and Elena Chaves-Pozo. 2022. "Severe Natural Outbreak of Cryptocaryon irritans in Gilthead Seabream Produces Leukocyte Mobilization and Innate Immunity at the Gill Tissue" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 2: 937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020937

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