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Review

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Infectious Diseases: From Endocrine Disruption to Immunosuppression

1
Department of Animal Science & Technology and BET Research Institute, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07985, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Lorenzo Iughetti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083939
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are hormonally active compounds in the environment that interfere with the body’s endocrine system and consequently produce adverse health effects. Despite persistent public health concerns, EDCs remain important components of common consumer products, thus representing ubiquitous contaminants to humans. While scientific evidence confirmed their contribution to the severity of Influenza A virus (H1N1) in the animal model, their roles in susceptibility and clinical outcome of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cannot be underestimated. Since its emergence in late 2019, clinical reports on COVID-19 have confirmed that severe disease and death occur in persons aged ≥65 years and those with underlying comorbidities. Major comorbidities of COVID-19 include diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, and kidney and liver diseases. Meanwhile, long-term exposure to EDCs contributes significantly to the onset and progression of these comorbid diseases. Besides, EDCs play vital roles in the disruption of the body’s immune system. Here, we review the recent literature on the roles of EDCs in comorbidities contributing to COVID-19 mortality, impacts of EDCs on the immune system, and recent articles linking EDCs to COVID-19 risks. We also recommend methodologies that could be adopted to comprehensively study the role of EDCs in COVID-19 risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disrupting chemicals; COVID-19; comorbid diseases; immune dysfunction endocrine disrupting chemicals; COVID-19; comorbid diseases; immune dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adegoke, E.O.; Rahman, M.S.; Park, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.J.; Pang, M.-G. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Infectious Diseases: From Endocrine Disruption to Immunosuppression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083939

AMA Style

Adegoke EO, Rahman MS, Park Y-J, Kim YJ, Pang M-G. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Infectious Diseases: From Endocrine Disruption to Immunosuppression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):3939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083939

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adegoke, Elikanah O., Md S. Rahman, Yoo-Jin Park, Young J. Kim, and Myung-Geol Pang. 2021. "Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Infectious Diseases: From Endocrine Disruption to Immunosuppression" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 3939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083939

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