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Fish-Ing for Enhancers in the Heart

International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland
Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, 61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michał Dąbrowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3914;
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Non-coding DNA Regions)
Precise control of gene expression is crucial to ensure proper development and biological functioning of an organism. Enhancers are non-coding DNA elements which play an essential role in regulating gene expression. They contain specific sequence motifs serving as binding sites for transcription factors which interact with the basal transcription machinery at their target genes. Heart development is regulated by intricate gene regulatory network ensuring precise spatiotemporal gene expression program. Mutations affecting enhancers have been shown to result in devastating forms of congenital heart defect. Therefore, identifying enhancers implicated in heart biology and understanding their mechanism is key to improve diagnosis and therapeutic options. Despite their crucial role, enhancers are poorly studied, mainly due to a lack of reliable way to identify them and determine their function. Nevertheless, recent technological advances have allowed rapid progress in enhancer discovery. Model organisms such as the zebrafish have contributed significant insights into the genetics of heart development through enabling functional analyses of genes and their regulatory elements in vivo. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge on heart enhancers gained through studies in model organisms, discuss various approaches to discover and study their function, and finally suggest methods that could further advance research in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhancers; heart development; heart regeneration; transcription factors; model organism; zebrafish enhancers; heart development; heart regeneration; transcription factors; model organism; zebrafish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parisi, C.; Vashisht, S.; Winata, C.L. Fish-Ing for Enhancers in the Heart. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3914.

AMA Style

Parisi C, Vashisht S, Winata CL. Fish-Ing for Enhancers in the Heart. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):3914.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parisi, Costantino, Shikha Vashisht, and Cecilia L. Winata. 2021. "Fish-Ing for Enhancers in the Heart" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 3914.

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