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Review

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Methylmercury Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation

1
Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), and Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Experimental Biology Core, University of Fortaleza, Health Sciences, Fortaleza 60110-001, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Tissue Healing, Ontogeny and Nutrition, Department of Morphology and Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60430-270, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ali Gorji
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063101
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicogenomics and Molecular Markers in Pollution)
Methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity is a major environmental concern. In the aquatic reservoir, MeHg bioaccumulates along the food chain until it is consumed by riverine populations. There has been much interest in the neurotoxicity of MeHg due to recent environmental disasters. Studies have also addressed the implications of long-term MeHg exposure for humans. The central nervous system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of MeHg, as evidenced by clinical symptoms and histopathological changes in poisoned humans. In vitro and in vivo studies have been crucial in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. A collection of cellular and molecular alterations including cytokine release, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, Ca2+ and glutamate dyshomeostasis, and cell death mechanisms are important consequences of brain cells exposure to MeHg. The purpose of this review is to organize an overview of the mercury cycle and MeHg poisoning events and to summarize data from cellular, animal, and human studies focusing on MeHg effects in neurons and glial cells. This review proposes an up-to-date compendium that will serve as a starting point for further studies and a consultation reference of published studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury cycle; Methylmercury; neuroinflammation; neurotoxicity; microglia; oligodendrocytes; astrocytes; neurons; oxidative stress mercury cycle; Methylmercury; neuroinflammation; neurotoxicity; microglia; oligodendrocytes; astrocytes; neurons; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novo, J.P.; Martins, B.; Raposo, R.S.; Pereira, F.C.; Oriá, R.B.; Malva, J.O.; Fontes-Ribeiro, C. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Methylmercury Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063101

AMA Style

Novo JP, Martins B, Raposo RS, Pereira FC, Oriá RB, Malva JO, Fontes-Ribeiro C. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Methylmercury Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novo, João P., Beatriz Martins, Ramon S. Raposo, Frederico C. Pereira, Reinaldo B. Oriá, João O. Malva, and Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro. 2021. "Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Methylmercury Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063101

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