Next Article in Journal
Molecular Docking and Biophysical Studies for Antiproliferative Assessment of Synthetic Pyrazolo-Pyrimidinones Tethered with Hydrazide-Hydrazones
Next Article in Special Issue
Cilia, Centrosomes and Skeletal Muscle
Previous Article in Journal
Is the ENaC Dysregulation in CF an Effect of Protein-Lipid Interaction in the Membranes?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by MuRF1 and Treatment of Myopathy in Diabetic Mice with Small Molecules Targeting MuRF1
 
 
Review

Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Organelle Biosynthesis: Practical Recommendations for Exercise Training

1
Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Performance Santé Environnement de Montagne (LIPSEM), Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Perpignan Via Domitia, UR 4640, 7 Avenue Pierre de Coubertin, 66120 Font-Romeu, France
2
DMEM, University of Montpellier, INRAE UMR866, 2 Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Sorrentino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052741
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 8 March 2021
The regulation of skeletal muscle mass and organelle homeostasis is dependent on the capacity of cells to produce proteins and to recycle cytosolic portions. In this investigation, the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass regulation—especially those associated with proteosynthesis and with the production of new organelles—are presented. Thus, the critical roles of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and its regulators are reviewed. In addition, the importance of ribosome biogenesis, satellite cells involvement, myonuclear accretion, and some major epigenetic modifications related to protein synthesis are discussed. Furthermore, several studies conducted on the topic of exercise training have recognized the central role of both endurance and resistance exercise to reorganize sarcomeric proteins and to improve the capacity of cells to build efficient organelles. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations to exercise training are presented throughout this review and practical recommendations for exercise prescription are provided. A better understanding of the aforementioned cellular pathways is essential for both healthy and sick people to avoid inefficient prescriptions and to improve muscle function with emergent strategies (e.g., hypoxic training). Finally, current limitations in the literature and further perspectives, notably on epigenetic mechanisms, are provided to encourage additional investigations on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: mTOR; eIF3f; protein turnover; ribosome biogenesis; resistance training; endurance training; hypoxia; satellite cells; DNA methylation; epigenetic modifications mTOR; eIF3f; protein turnover; ribosome biogenesis; resistance training; endurance training; hypoxia; satellite cells; DNA methylation; epigenetic modifications
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Solsona, R.; Pavlin, L.; Bernardi, H.; Sanchez, A.M. Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Organelle Biosynthesis: Practical Recommendations for Exercise Training. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052741

AMA Style

Solsona R, Pavlin L, Bernardi H, Sanchez AM. Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Organelle Biosynthesis: Practical Recommendations for Exercise Training. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(5):2741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Solsona, Robert, Laura Pavlin, Henri Bernardi, and Anthony MJ Sanchez. 2021. "Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Organelle Biosynthesis: Practical Recommendations for Exercise Training" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 5: 2741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052741

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop