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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Structural Isomers of Spermine on the Higher-Order Structure of DNA and Gene Expression

1
Graduate School of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
2
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan
3
Doctoral Program in Chemistry, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, College of Staten Island, Staten Island, New York, NY 10314, USA
5
Center for Integrative Medicine and Physics, Institute for Advanced Study, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kunio Takeyasu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052355
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Cell and Single-Molecule Analysis of Microorganism)
Polyamines are involved in various biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, gene regulation, etc. Recently, it was found that polyamines exhibit biphasic effects on gene expression: promotion and inhibition at low and high concentrations, respectively. Here, we compared the effects of three naturally occurring tetravalent polyamines, spermine (SPM), thermospermine (TSPM), and N4-aminopropylspermidine (BSPD). Based on the single DNA observation with fluorescence microscopy together with measurements by atomic force microscopy revealed that these polyamines induce shrinkage and then compaction of DNA molecules, at low and high concentrations, respectively. We also performed the observation to evaluate the effects of these polyamine isomers on the activity of gene expression by adapting a cell-free luciferase assay. Interestingly, the potency of their effects on the DNA conformation and also on the inhibition of gene expression activity indicates the highest for TSPM among spermine isomers. A numerical evaluation of the strength of the interaction of these polyamines with negatively charged double-strand DNA revealed that this ordering of the potency corresponds to the order of the strength of the attractive interaction between phosphate groups of DNA and positively charged amino groups of the polyamines. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyamine; higher-order structure of DNA; gene expression; bimodal effect of promotion and inhibition polyamine; higher-order structure of DNA; gene expression; bimodal effect of promotion and inhibition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kitagawa, T.; Nishio, T.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Umezawa, N.; Higuchi, T.; Shew, C.-Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Yoshikawa, K. Effects of Structural Isomers of Spermine on the Higher-Order Structure of DNA and Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052355

AMA Style

Kitagawa T, Nishio T, Yoshikawa Y, Umezawa N, Higuchi T, Shew C-Y, Kenmotsu T, Yoshikawa K. Effects of Structural Isomers of Spermine on the Higher-Order Structure of DNA and Gene Expression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(5):2355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052355

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kitagawa, Tomoki; Nishio, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Umezawa, Naoki; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi. 2021. "Effects of Structural Isomers of Spermine on the Higher-Order Structure of DNA and Gene Expression" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 5: 2355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052355

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