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Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Application, Using Cl-Amidine, PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 Isozyme-Specific Inhibitors in Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Reveals Roles for PAD2 and PAD3 in Cancer Invasion and Modulation of Extracellular Vesicle Signatures

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Cancer Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6 UW, UK
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Tissue Architecture and Regeneration Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6 UW, UK
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Electron Microscopy Suite, Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Srikumar Chellappan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031396
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with limited survival rate. Roles for peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) have been studied in relation to a range of cancers with roles in epigenetic regulation (including histone modification and microRNA regulation), cancer invasion, and extracellular vesicle (EV) release. Hitherto though, knowledge on PADs in PDAC is limited. In the current study, two PDAC cell lines (Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2) were treated with pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine as well as PAD2, PAD3, and PAD4 isozyme-specific inhibitors. Effects were assessed on changes in EV signatures, including EV microRNA cargo (miR-21, miR-126, and miR-221), on changes in cellular protein expression relevant for pancreatic cancer progression and invasion (moesin), for mitochondrial housekeeping (prohibitin, PHB), and gene regulation (deiminated histone H3, citH3). The two pancreatic cancer cell lines were found to predominantly express PAD2 and PAD3, which were furthermore expressed at higher levels in Panc-1, compared with MiaPaCa-2 cells. PAD2 isozyme-specific inhibitor had the strongest effects on reducing Panc-1 cell invasion capability, which was accompanied by an increase in moesin expression, which in pancreatic cancer is found to be reduced and associated with pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Some reduction, but not significant, was also found on PHB levels while effects on histone H3 deimination were variable. EV signatures were modulated in response to PAD inhibitor treatment, with the strongest effects observed for PAD2 inhibitor, followed by PAD3 inhibitor, showing significant reduction in pro-oncogenic EV microRNA cargo (miR-21, miR-221) and increase in anti-oncogenic microRNA cargo (miR-126). While PAD2 inhibitor, followed by PAD3 inhibitor, had most effects on reducing cancer cell invasion, elevating moesin expression, and modulating EV signatures, PAD4 inhibitor had negligible effects and pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine was also less effective. Compared with MiaPaCa-2 cells, stronger modulatory effects for the PAD inhibitors were observed in Panc-1 cells, which importantly also showed strong response to PAD3 inhibitor, correlating with previous observations that Panc-1 cells display neuronal/stem-like properties. Our findings report novel PAD isozyme regulatory roles in PDAC, highlighting roles for PAD isozyme-specific treatment, depending on cancer type and cancer subtypes, including in PDAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs); protein deimination; extracellular vesicles (EVs); pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); moesin; prohibitin (PHB); deiminated histone H3 (citH3); microRNA (miR-21; miR-221; miR-126) peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs); protein deimination; extracellular vesicles (EVs); pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); moesin; prohibitin (PHB); deiminated histone H3 (citH3); microRNA (miR-21; miR-221; miR-126)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uysal-Onganer, P.; D’Alessio, S.; Mortoglou, M.; Kraev, I.; Lange, S. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Application, Using Cl-Amidine, PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 Isozyme-Specific Inhibitors in Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Reveals Roles for PAD2 and PAD3 in Cancer Invasion and Modulation of Extracellular Vesicle Signatures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031396

AMA Style

Uysal-Onganer P, D’Alessio S, Mortoglou M, Kraev I, Lange S. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Application, Using Cl-Amidine, PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 Isozyme-Specific Inhibitors in Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Reveals Roles for PAD2 and PAD3 in Cancer Invasion and Modulation of Extracellular Vesicle Signatures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uysal-Onganer, Pinar; D’Alessio, Stefania; Mortoglou, Maria; Kraev, Igor; Lange, Sigrun. 2021. "Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Application, Using Cl-Amidine, PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 Isozyme-Specific Inhibitors in Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Reveals Roles for PAD2 and PAD3 in Cancer Invasion and Modulation of Extracellular Vesicle Signatures" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 3: 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031396

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