Next Article in Journal
Gene Methylation and Silencing of WIF1 Is a Frequent Genetic Abnormality in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Pathogenicity-Associated V2 Protein of Tobacco Curly Shoot Virus
Previous Article in Journal
Microstructured Lipid Carriers (MLC) Based on N-Acetylcysteine and Chitosan Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulatory RNAs: A Universal Language for Inter-Domain Communication
Review

Insights into the Role of Tick Salivary Protease Inhibitors during Ectoparasite–Host Crosstalk

1
Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics of Disease Vectors, Biology Centre CAS, Institute of Parasitology, Branišovská 1160/31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, LR19IPTX, Service d’Entomologie Médicale, Tunis 1002, Tunisia
3
Innovation and Development Laboratory, Innovation and Development Center, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
4
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020892
Received: 25 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 17 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction 2.0)
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are ubiquitous regulatory proteins present in all kingdoms. They play crucial tasks in controlling biological processes directed by proteases which, if not tightly regulated, can damage the host organism. PIs can be classified according to their targeted proteases or their mechanism of action. The functions of many PIs have now been characterized and are showing clinical relevance for the treatment of human diseases such as arthritis, hepatitis, cancer, AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases, amongst others. Other PIs have potential use in agriculture as insecticides, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agents. PIs from tick salivary glands are special due to their pharmacological properties and their high specificity, selectivity, and affinity to their target proteases at the tick–host interface. In this review, we discuss the structure and function of PIs in general and those PI superfamilies abundant in tick salivary glands to illustrate their possible practical applications. In doing so, we describe tick salivary PIs that are showing promise as drug candidates, highlighting the most promising ones tested in vivo and which are now progressing to preclinical and clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: protease inhibitors; proteases; tick saliva; drug discovery protease inhibitors; proteases; tick saliva; drug discovery
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jmel, M.A.; Aounallah, H.; Bensaoud, C.; Mekki, I.; Chmelař, J.; Faria, F.; M’ghirbi, Y.; Kotsyfakis, M. Insights into the Role of Tick Salivary Protease Inhibitors during Ectoparasite–Host Crosstalk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020892

AMA Style

Jmel MA, Aounallah H, Bensaoud C, Mekki I, Chmelař J, Faria F, M’ghirbi Y, Kotsyfakis M. Insights into the Role of Tick Salivary Protease Inhibitors during Ectoparasite–Host Crosstalk. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jmel, Mohamed A., Hajer Aounallah, Chaima Bensaoud, Imen Mekki, Jindřich Chmelař, Fernanda Faria, Youmna M’ghirbi, and Michalis Kotsyfakis. 2021. "Insights into the Role of Tick Salivary Protease Inhibitors during Ectoparasite–Host Crosstalk" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020892

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop