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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Multimycotoxin-Degrading Efficiency of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 Strain with the Three-Step Zebrafish Microinjection Method

1
Department of Aquaculture, Institute for Conservation of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
2
Institute of Aquaculture and Environmental Safety, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
3
Department of Environmental Safety and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Conservation of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
4
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020724
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Metabolites of Xenobiotics)
The multimycotoxin-degrading efficiency of the Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 strain was investigated with a previously developed three-step method. NI1 bacterial metabolites, single and combined mycotoxins and their NI1 degradation products, were injected into one cell stage zebrafish embryos in the same doses. Toxic and interaction effects were supplemented with UHPLC-MS/MS measurement of toxin concentrations. Results showed that the NI1 strain was able to degrade mycotoxins and their mixtures in different proportions, where a higher ratio of mycotoxins were reduced in combination than single ones. The NI1 strain reduced the toxic effects of mycotoxins and mixtures, except for the AFB1+T-2 mixture. Degradation products of the AFB1+T-2 mixture by the NI1 strain were more toxic than the initial AFB1+T-2 mixture, while the analytical results showed very high degradation, which means that the NI1 strain degraded this mixture to toxic degradation products. The NI1 strain was able to detoxify the AFB1, ZEN, T-2 toxins and mixtures (except for AFB1+T-2 mixture) during the degradation experiments, which means that the NI1 strain degraded these to non-toxic degradation products. The results demonstrate that single exposures of mycotoxins were very toxic. The combined exposure of mycotoxins had synergistic effects, except for ZEN+T-2 and AFB1+ZEN +T-2, whose mixtures had very strong antagonistic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; T-2; zearalenone; combined exposure; combined toxicity aflatoxin B1; T-2; zearalenone; combined exposure; combined toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garai, E.; Risa, A.; Varga, E.; Cserháti, M.; Kriszt, B.; Urbányi, B.; Csenki, Z. Evaluation of the Multimycotoxin-Degrading Efficiency of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 Strain with the Three-Step Zebrafish Microinjection Method. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020724

AMA Style

Garai E, Risa A, Varga E, Cserháti M, Kriszt B, Urbányi B, Csenki Z. Evaluation of the Multimycotoxin-Degrading Efficiency of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 Strain with the Three-Step Zebrafish Microinjection Method. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020724

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garai, Edina; Risa, Anita; Varga, Emese; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kriszt, Balázs; Urbányi, Béla; Csenki, Zsolt. 2021. "Evaluation of the Multimycotoxin-Degrading Efficiency of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 Strain with the Three-Step Zebrafish Microinjection Method" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020724

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