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Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence by Tryptophan Metabolites

by 1,2
1
Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan
2
Institute of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30071, Taiwan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020697
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 3 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Aging Stress Response)
Cellular senescence contributes to aging and age-related disorders. High glucose (HG) induces mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) senescence, which hampers cell expansion and impairs MSC function. Intracellular HG triggers metabolic shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. It causes mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological changes. Tryptophan metabolites such as 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) and melatonin attenuate HG-induced MSC senescence by protecting mitochondrial integrity and function and reducing ROS generation. They upregulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Both metabolites inhibit stress-induced MSC senescence by blocking p38 MAPK signaling pathway, NF-κB, and p300 histone acetyltransferase activity. Furthermore, melatonin upregulates SIRT-1, which reduces NF-κB activity by de-acetylation of NF-κB subunits. Melatonin and 5-MTP are a new class of metabolites protecting MSCs against replicative and stress-induced cellular senescence. They provide new strategies to improve the efficiency of MSC-based therapy for diverse human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; hyperglycemia; mesenchymal stromal/stem cells; 5-methoxytryptophan; melatonin; cellular senescence mitochondrial dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant enzymes type 2 diabetes; hyperglycemia; mesenchymal stromal/stem cells; 5-methoxytryptophan; melatonin; cellular senescence mitochondrial dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant enzymes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, K.K. Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence by Tryptophan Metabolites. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020697

AMA Style

Wu KK. Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence by Tryptophan Metabolites. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):697. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020697

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Kenneth K. 2021. "Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence by Tryptophan Metabolites" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020697

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