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TGF-β Activity of a Demineralized Bone Matrix

Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Sensengasse 2a, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Donaueschingenstraße 13, 1200 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 664;
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2021 / Published: 11 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implant and Graft Interactions with Hard and Soft Tissues)
Allografts consisting of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) are supposed to retain the growth factors of native bone. However, it is not clear if transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is maintained in the acid-extracted human bone. To this aim, the aqueous solutions of supernatants and acid lysates of OraGRAFT® Demineralized Cortical Particulate and OraGRAFT® Prime were prepared. Exposing fibroblasts to the aqueous solution caused a TGF-β receptor type I kinase-inhibitor SB431542-dependent increase in interleukin 11 (IL11), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) expression. Interleukin 11 expression and the presence of TGF-β1 in the aqueous solutions were confirmed by immunoassay. Immunofluorescence further confirmed the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 when fibroblasts were exposed to the aqueous solutions of both allografts. Moreover, allografts released matrix metalloprotease-2 activity and blocking proteases diminished the cellular TGF-β response to the supernatant. These results suggest that TGF-β is preserved upon the processing of OraGRAFT® and released by proteolytic activity into the aqueous solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: demineralized bone matrix; transforming growth factor β1; allografts; bioassay; bone regeneration; bone augmentation demineralized bone matrix; transforming growth factor β1; allografts; bioassay; bone regeneration; bone augmentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Panahipour, L.; Omerbasic, A.; Nasirzade, J.; Gruber, R. TGF-β Activity of a Demineralized Bone Matrix. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 664.

AMA Style

Panahipour L, Omerbasic A, Nasirzade J, Gruber R. TGF-β Activity of a Demineralized Bone Matrix. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):664.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panahipour, Layla, Anes Omerbasic, Jila Nasirzade, and Reinhard Gruber. 2021. "TGF-β Activity of a Demineralized Bone Matrix" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 664.

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