Allografts consisting of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) are supposed to retain the growth factors of native bone. However, it is not clear if transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is maintained in the acid-extracted human bone. To this aim, the aqueous solutions of supernatants and acid lysates of OraGRAFT®
Demineralized Cortical Particulate and OraGRAFT®
Prime were prepared. Exposing fibroblasts to the aqueous solution caused a TGF-β receptor type I kinase-inhibitor SB431542-dependent increase in interleukin 11 (IL11), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) expression. Interleukin 11 expression and the presence of TGF-β1 in the aqueous solutions were confirmed by immunoassay. Immunofluorescence further confirmed the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 when fibroblasts were exposed to the aqueous solutions of both allografts. Moreover, allografts released matrix metalloprotease-2 activity and blocking proteases diminished the cellular TGF-β response to the supernatant. These results suggest that TGF-β is preserved upon the processing of OraGRAFT®
and released by proteolytic activity into the aqueous solution.
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