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Molecular Diversity of Anesthetic Actions Is Evident in Electroencephalogram Effects in Humans and Animals

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020495
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms and Neural Correlates of General Anesthesia)
Anesthetic agents cause unique electroencephalogram (EEG) activity resulting from actions on their diverse molecular targets. Typically to produce balanced anesthesia in the clinical setting, several anesthetic and adjuvant agents are combined. This creates challenges for the clinical use of intraoperative EEG monitoring, because computational approaches are mostly limited to spectral analyses and different agents and combinations produce different EEG responses. Thus, testing of many combinations of agents is needed to generate accurate, protocol independent analyses. Additionally, most studies to develop new computational approaches take place in young, healthy adults and electrophysiological responses to anesthetics vary widely at the extremes of age, due to physiological brain differences. Below, we discuss the challenges associated with EEG biomarker identification for anesthetic depth based on the diversity of molecular targets. We suggest that by focusing on the generalized effects of anesthetic agents on network activity, we can create paths for improved universal analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: anesthetic depth; electroencephalogram; complexity; consciousness; nonlinear dynamics anesthetic depth; electroencephalogram; complexity; consciousness; nonlinear dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eagleman, S.; MacIver, M.B. Molecular Diversity of Anesthetic Actions Is Evident in Electroencephalogram Effects in Humans and Animals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020495

AMA Style

Eagleman S, MacIver MB. Molecular Diversity of Anesthetic Actions Is Evident in Electroencephalogram Effects in Humans and Animals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020495

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eagleman, Sarah, and M. B. MacIver 2021. "Molecular Diversity of Anesthetic Actions Is Evident in Electroencephalogram Effects in Humans and Animals" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020495

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