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Mood Stabilizers in Psychiatric Disorders and Mechanisms Learnt from In Vitro Model Systems

Sagol Department of Neurobiology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
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Academic Editor: Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179315
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Mood Stabilizers)
Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are psychiatric disorders that manifest unusual mental, behavioral, and emotional patterns leading to suffering and disability. These disorders span heterogeneous conditions with variable heredity and elusive pathophysiology. Mood stabilizers such as lithium and valproic acid (VPA) have been shown to be effective in BD and, to some extent in schizophrenia. This review highlights the efficacy of lithium and VPA treatment in several randomized, controlled human trials conducted in patients suffering from BD and schizophrenia. Furthermore, we also address the importance of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a disease model for mirroring the disease’s phenotypes. In BD, iPSC-derived neurons enabled finding an endophenotype of hyperexcitability with increased hyperpolarizations. Some of the disease phenotypes were significantly alleviated by lithium treatment. VPA studies have also reported rescuing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and reducing activity. Another significant contribution of iPSC models can be attributed to studying the molecular etiologies of schizophrenia such as abnormal differentiation of patient-derived neural stem cells, decreased neuronal connectivity and neurite number, impaired synaptic function, and altered gene expression patterns. Overall, despite significant advances using these novel models, much more work remains to fully understand the mechanisms by which these disorders affect the patients’ brains. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; lithium; valproic acid; induced pluripotent stem cells schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; lithium; valproic acid; induced pluripotent stem cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nayak, R.; Rosh, I.; Kustanovich, I.; Stern, S. Mood Stabilizers in Psychiatric Disorders and Mechanisms Learnt from In Vitro Model Systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9315. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179315

AMA Style

Nayak R, Rosh I, Kustanovich I, Stern S. Mood Stabilizers in Psychiatric Disorders and Mechanisms Learnt from In Vitro Model Systems. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9315. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179315

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nayak, Ritu, Idan Rosh, Irina Kustanovich, and Shani Stern. 2021. "Mood Stabilizers in Psychiatric Disorders and Mechanisms Learnt from In Vitro Model Systems" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9315. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179315

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