Next Article in Journal
Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxins, and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Dangerous Liaisons
Next Article in Special Issue
From Fighting Critters to Saving Lives: Polyphenols in Plant Defense and Human Health
Previous Article in Journal
Structural Contour Map of the Iota Carbonic Anhydrase from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Using a Multiprong Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aloysia Citrodora Essential Oil Inhibits Melanoma Cell Growth and Migration by Targeting HB-EGF-EGFR Signaling
Review

Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression

1
Department of Research and Development, MiZ Company Limited, 2-19-15 Ofuna, Kamakura 247-0056, Kanagawa, Japan
2
MiZ Inc., 39899 Balentine Drive Suite 200, Newark, CA 94560, USA
3
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg #3140, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA
4
Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University (Professor Emeritus), 5322 Endo, Fujisawa 252-0882, Japan
5
Faculty of Data Science, Musashino University, 3-3-3 Ariake, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 134-8181, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Akiko Maeda and Maria Adelaide Caligo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168724
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 13 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Annual Reviews in Molecular Genetics and Genomics 2021)
While many antitumor drugs have yielded unsatisfactory therapeutic results, drugs are one of the most prevalent therapeutic measures for the treatment of cancer. The development of cancer largely results from mutations in nuclear DNA, as well as from those in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Molecular hydrogen (H2), an inert molecule, can scavenge hydroxyl radicals (·OH), which are known to be the strongest oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body that causes these DNA mutations. It has been reported that H2 has no side effects, unlike conventional antitumor drugs, and that it is effective against many diseases caused by oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Recently, there has been an increasing number of papers on the efficacy of H2 against cancer and its effects in mitigating the side effects of cancer treatment. In this review, we demonstrate the efficacy and safety of H2 as a novel antitumor agent and show that its mechanisms may not only involve the direct scavenging of ·OH, but also other indirect biological defense mechanisms via the regulation of gene expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular hydrogen; antitumor effect; gene expression; ROS; reactive oxygen species; DNA mutation; oxidative stress; antitumor agent; clinical application molecular hydrogen; antitumor effect; gene expression; ROS; reactive oxygen species; DNA mutation; oxidative stress; antitumor agent; clinical application
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hirano, S.-i.; Yamamoto, H.; Ichikawa, Y.; Sato, B.; Takefuji, Y.; Satoh, F. Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168724

AMA Style

Hirano S-i, Yamamoto H, Ichikawa Y, Sato B, Takefuji Y, Satoh F. Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168724

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirano, Shin-ichi, Haru Yamamoto, Yusuke Ichikawa, Bunpei Sato, Yoshiyasu Takefuji, and Fumitake Satoh. 2021. "Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antitumor Agent: Possible Mechanisms Underlying Gene Expression" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168724

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop