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Review

Smoking and Neuropsychiatric Disease—Associations and Underlying Mechanisms

1
University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology—Cardiology I, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
2
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Rhine-Main, 55131 Mainz, Germany
3
University Medical Center, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
4
University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
5
Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, 55131 Mainz, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally and should be regarded as joint first authors.
Academic Editor: Miriam Melis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147272
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 3 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Insights in Psychiatry)
Despite extensive efforts to combat cigarette smoking/tobacco use, it still remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, killing more than eight million people each year. While tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases related to the four main groups—cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes—its impact on neuropsychiatric risk is rather elusive. The aim of this review article is to emphasize the importance of smoking as a potential risk factor for neuropsychiatric disease and to identify central pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to this relationship. There is strong evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies indicating that smoking may increase the risk of various neuropsychiatric diseases, such as dementia/cognitive decline, schizophrenia/psychosis, depression, anxiety disorder, and suicidal behavior induced by structural and functional alterations of the central nervous system, mainly centered on inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. From a public health perspective, preventive measures and policies designed to counteract the global epidemic of smoking should necessarily include warnings and actions that address the risk of neuropsychiatric disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; smoking-induced disease; neuropsychiatric disorder; oxidative stress; inflammation smoking; smoking-induced disease; neuropsychiatric disorder; oxidative stress; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hahad, O.; Daiber, A.; Michal, M.; Kuntic, M.; Lieb, K.; Beutel, M.; Münzel, T. Smoking and Neuropsychiatric Disease—Associations and Underlying Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7272. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147272

AMA Style

Hahad O, Daiber A, Michal M, Kuntic M, Lieb K, Beutel M, Münzel T. Smoking and Neuropsychiatric Disease—Associations and Underlying Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7272. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hahad, Omar, Andreas Daiber, Matthias Michal, Marin Kuntic, Klaus Lieb, Manfred Beutel, and Thomas Münzel. 2021. "Smoking and Neuropsychiatric Disease—Associations and Underlying Mechanisms" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7272. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147272

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