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Review

The CNS/PNS Extracellular Matrix Provides Instructive Guidance Cues to Neural Cells and Neuroregulatory Proteins in Neural Development and Repair

1
Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
2
Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
3
Sydney Medical School, Northern, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
5
Bioimaging Research Hub, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK
6
Clinical Neuroscience Research Center, Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Silvia Panseri and Monica Montesi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115583
Received: 17 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
Background. The extracellular matrix of the PNS/CNS is unusual in that it is dominated by glycosaminoglycans, especially hyaluronan, whose space filling and hydrating properties make essential contributions to the functional properties of this tissue. Hyaluronan has a relatively simple structure but its space-filling properties ensure micro-compartments are maintained in the brain ultrastructure, ensuring ionic niches and gradients are maintained for optimal cellular function. Hyaluronan has cell-instructive, anti-inflammatory properties and forms macro-molecular aggregates with the lectican CS-proteoglycans, forming dense protective perineuronal net structures that provide neural and synaptic plasticity and support cognitive learning. Aims. To highlight the central nervous system/peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) and its diverse extracellular and cell-associated proteoglycans that have cell-instructive properties regulating neural repair processes and functional recovery through interactions with cell adhesive molecules, receptors and neuroregulatory proteins. Despite a general lack of stabilising fibrillar collagenous and elastic structures in the CNS/PNS, a sophisticated dynamic extracellular matrix is nevertheless important in tissue form and function. Conclusions. This review provides examples of the sophistication of the CNS/PNS extracellular matrix, showing how it maintains homeostasis and regulates neural repair and regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular matrix; proteoglycans; agrin; perlecan; phosphacan; NG2 proteoglycan; Neuroglycan-C; lecticans; hyaluronan; neural repair and regeneration1 extracellular matrix; proteoglycans; agrin; perlecan; phosphacan; NG2 proteoglycan; Neuroglycan-C; lecticans; hyaluronan; neural repair and regeneration1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melrose, J.; Hayes, A.J.; Bix, G. The CNS/PNS Extracellular Matrix Provides Instructive Guidance Cues to Neural Cells and Neuroregulatory Proteins in Neural Development and Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115583

AMA Style

Melrose J, Hayes AJ, Bix G. The CNS/PNS Extracellular Matrix Provides Instructive Guidance Cues to Neural Cells and Neuroregulatory Proteins in Neural Development and Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melrose, James, Anthony J. Hayes, and Gregory Bix. 2021. "The CNS/PNS Extracellular Matrix Provides Instructive Guidance Cues to Neural Cells and Neuroregulatory Proteins in Neural Development and Repair" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115583

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