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Open AccessArticle

Ordinary Gasoline Emissions Induce a Toxic Response in Bronchial Cells Grown at Air-Liquid Interface

1
Department of Nanotoxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the CAS, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Centre of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
4
Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
5
Department of Computer Science, Czech Technical University in Prague, 121 35 Prague, Czech Republic
6
Department of Genetic Toxicology and Epigenetics, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the CAS, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
7
Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010079
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 17 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Role of Xenobiotics)
Gasoline engine emissions have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans and represent a significant health risk. In this study, we used MucilAir™, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human airway, and BEAS-2B, cells originating from the human bronchial epithelium, grown at the air-liquid interface to assess the toxicity of ordinary gasoline exhaust produced by a direct injection spark ignition engine. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), production of mucin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and adenylate kinase (AK) activities were analyzed after one day and five days of exposure. The induction of double-stranded DNA breaks was measured by the detection of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze the modulation of expression of the relevant 370 genes. The exposure to gasoline emissions affected the integrity, as well as LDH and AK leakage in the 3D model, particularly after longer exposure periods. Mucin production was mostly decreased with the exception of longer BEAS-2B treatment, for which a significant increase was detected. DNA damage was detected after five days of exposure in the 3D model, but not in BEAS-2B cells. The expression of CYP1A1 and GSTA3 was modulated in MucilAir™ tissues after 5 days of treatment. In BEAS-2B cells, the expression of 39 mRNAs was affected after short exposure, most of them were upregulated. The five days of exposure modulated the expression of 11 genes in this cell line. In conclusion, the ordinary gasoline emissions induced a toxic response in MucilAir™. In BEAS-2B cells, the biological response was less pronounced, mostly limited to gene expression changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: gasoline emissions; toxicity; air-liquid interface; MucilAir™; bronchial epithelial cells gasoline emissions; toxicity; air-liquid interface; MucilAir™; bronchial epithelial cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cervena, T.; Vojtisek-Lom, M.; Vrbova, K.; Ambroz, A.; Novakova, Z.; Elzeinova, F.; Sima, M.; Beranek, V.; Pechout, M.; Macoun, D.; Klema, J.; Rossnerova, A.; Ciganek, M.; Topinka, J.; Rossner, P., Jr. Ordinary Gasoline Emissions Induce a Toxic Response in Bronchial Cells Grown at Air-Liquid Interface. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010079

AMA Style

Cervena T, Vojtisek-Lom M, Vrbova K, Ambroz A, Novakova Z, Elzeinova F, Sima M, Beranek V, Pechout M, Macoun D, Klema J, Rossnerova A, Ciganek M, Topinka J, Rossner P Jr.. Ordinary Gasoline Emissions Induce a Toxic Response in Bronchial Cells Grown at Air-Liquid Interface. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):79. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cervena, Tereza; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Vrbova, Kristyna; Ambroz, Antonin; Novakova, Zuzana; Elzeinova, Fatima; Sima, Michal; Beranek, Vit; Pechout, Martin; Macoun, David; Klema, Jiri; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ciganek, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan; Rossner, Pavel, Jr. 2021. "Ordinary Gasoline Emissions Induce a Toxic Response in Bronchial Cells Grown at Air-Liquid Interface" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 1: 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010079

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