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Oxidative Stress: Role and Response of Short Guanine Tracts at Genomic Locations

1
Nucleic Acids Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi 110007, India
2
Department of Chemistry, Ramjas College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
3
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB) Campus, Delhi 110007, India
4
Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India
5
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174258
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulation of Oxidative Stress: Molecular and Pharmacological Aspects)
Over the decades, oxidative stress has emerged as a major concern to biological researchers. It is involved in the pathogenesis of various lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The connection between oxidative stress and telomere shortening via oxidative guanine lesion is well documented. Telomeres are confined to guanine rich ends of chromosomes. Owing to its self-association properties, it adopts G-quadruplex structures and hampers the overexpression of telomerase in the cancer cells. Guanine, being the most oxidation prone nucleobase, when structured in G-quadruplex entity, is found to respond peculiarly towards oxidative stress. Interestingly, this non-Watson–Crick structural feature exists abundantly in promoters of various oncogenes, exons and other genomic locations. The involvement of G-quadruplex architecture in oncogene promoters is well recognized in gene regulation processes. Development of small molecules aimed to target G-quadruplex structures, have found to alter the overexpression of oncogenes. The interaction may lead to the obstruction of diseased cell having elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, presence of short guanine tracts (Gn) forming G-quadruplexes suggests its critical role in oxidative genome damage. Present review is a modest attempt to gain insight on the association of oxidative stress and G-quadruplexes, in various biological processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; guanine base; G-quadruplex; 8-oxo-dG; reactive oxygen species; oxidation oxidative stress; guanine base; G-quadruplex; 8-oxo-dG; reactive oxygen species; oxidation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, A.; Kukreti, R.; Saso, L.; Kukreti, S. Oxidative Stress: Role and Response of Short Guanine Tracts at Genomic Locations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4258.

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